Understanding The Coronavirus— Infectious Disease Expert Dr. Otto Yang Explains Fact From Fiction

Understanding The Coronavirus— Infectious Disease Expert Dr. Otto Yang Explains Fact From Fiction


Chris: What’s up, Futur Family?
If you’re tuning in for the regular design content, that we
normally broadcast, this is probably not the episode
for you. But if you’re like me, and
people from all over the world, who are concerned about this
rapidly evolving situation with COVID-19, the coronavirus,
you’re going to want to stick around. Why are we doing this
episode? First, there’s so much information that’s going around
on the Internet. We don’t know what to believe, or what to
believe. We’ve got to start to separate fact from fiction. And
I have the privilege to talk to Dr. Otto Yang today. And I
just want to share a really brief story here. My friend Dr. Shelly Metten
from UCLA. She’s like, I know the person you need to bring on
the show. He specializes in infectious disease, so I’m
going to bring him on the show and in just a second. So here’s a couple of things
that you need to know about Dr. Otto Yang. He specializes in
infectious disease, as I’ve mentioned. He’s a professor at
UCLA since 1999. He’s also a board member of Applied
Medical. He’s a scientific researcher, doing
really important things. Developing immune therapies and
vaccines for HIV, cancer, and other viral infections. He’s
also working on nanoparticles, these things called vaults, as
a possible vaccine. And he’s very highly educated
in this field, and so we’re just thrilled to have him. He
went to Brown Medical School. He also went to NYU to study
Internal Medicine, where he did his residency training. He also
went to Harvard, where he specialized in
infectious disease, where he also taught for
over two years. Dr. Otto Yang, thank you very
much for coming on the show. Everybody help me
welcome Dr. Otto Yang. OK. So we’re thrilled to have
you. I just want to start off with just some basic, ground-
level knowledge. What is the coronavirus? Have we seen
something like this before? Just… get us up to speed on
what the coronavirus is. Dr.: I’m sorry, you’re almost
completely breaking up I couldn’t hear. Chris: OK. Can you just tell us
what the coronavirus is? What it isn’t? So we kind of have an
understanding of this. Dr.: So the coronavirus it’s
it’s what we call an RNA virus. And this is one of a whole of
viruses that… actually, it’s related to several
viruses that have already been circulating… every year
for decades. So there are at least four
other coronaviruses. And those viruses cause very mild
infections that they actually account for, up to… 30
percent of the common cold that’s seen every year during
cold and flu season. And so, these are viruses that tend to
infect cells in the repiratory tract, starting
anywhere from the nose and mouth, all the
way down to the lungs. And as I said, those other four
generally cause very mild infections and has mostly
been ignored, even though we’ve known about them, because…
except for some exceptions, like very young children or
very severely immunocompromised patients who can get
severe disease. Overall that they cause very mild symptoms
and very mild disease. And so they’ve been ignored until 2002.
And then in 2002, the first serious coronavirus
disease came to our awareness, and that was SARS. And SARS was
a coronavirus that made a species jump, originally from
bats probably into another small animal, probably the
civic cat. And then into humans. And SARS swept
through pretty quickly, different parts of the world.
Caused quite a few deaths. Had a very high mortality rate of
about 10 percent. But, fortunately, it disappeared
almost as quickly as it came. And no scientists at that time
would have predicted that would have happened, but somehow that
happened and it was probably a combination of… good public
health practices to control that spread and some other
natural factors we don’t really understand. And then we didn’t hear about
any other severe coronaviruses until about 2012 when MERS
came out, our Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome. That,
again, was another bat coronavirus. So bats carry
thousands of different coronaviruses, and most of them
stay contained in their original species of bats. But,
this one also made a leap, and it looks like this one came
through camels into humans. And then MERS had an even higher
mortality rate of about 30 percent. And, it…
unlike SARS, it has never gone away completely. So there are occasional
outbreaks still, but it has been pretty easy to contain
with public health measures and keep those outbreaks from
becoming widespread. And, so, now, this virus is fairly
similar to the original SARS. It’s about 86 percent
genetically similar. It also almost certainly came from
bats. There’s some debate about how it jumps into humans. It
looks like there’s some evidence that may happen from
pangolins? And, this one, unfortunately, has shown a
great greater capacity to spread than either of those
other two more serious, or higher mortality coronaviruses. Chris: OK. So… I think I kind
of understand this. It seems like you’re saying, and
hopefully you can still hear me, that we… bats carry
a lot of disease, and then the species jump, which which is
where we get into trouble.. . And what’s the… what’s the
hypothesis on why this is happening? Or, or… why is it
happening more frequently it seems like? Dr.: Yeah there’s a lot of…
That’s an area of a lot of interest, a lot
of discussion. That’s probably multiple factors. So, a big one I think that most
scientists cite is that there is a lot of habitat loss of
animals. And so the frequency of exposure between animals and
humans is increasing over time as… as… there is more
crowding between animals and humans because of habitat loss.
So that… that’s a big one, a big factor probably. Nobody
understands for sure. Chris: OK, so habitat loss. Is
there any other reasons why you’re seeing this happening
more now? Dr.: That’s probably the
major one. And then I think the other… the other major
thing is human… both human crowding because of
population increase, right? So diseases that spread from
human to human, spread more efficiently when humans are
closer together. And then, also, the greater
interconnectedness of people across the world, right? So now
people travel by airplane all over the place. There’s a lot
more mixing of people than there used to be. So in 1918,
when there was the great Spanish flu, there were
no airplanes, or no…. And even then, that virus spread
and killed a lot of people. So things are just that much worse
now in terms of the opportunity for a virus to spread through
human populations. Chris: Right. OK, so, this is
going to take me to my next question which is… I don’t
I don’t… I don’t know. There’s countries where
there’s full, like, military lockdown on this to try to
contain the virus. And then you hear about friends in certain
parts of Europe, and other parts of the world, where
people are literally still out in the bars drinking like
they’re not taking this seriously at all. So what is,
in your estimation, the threat level? I don’t know
how to react right now. I don’t know if I’m
under preparing, or I’m over preparing? Dr.: Yeah. So that’s a very
complicated issue. The general threat level to
society is very high. This virus, experts
are estimating, it has the capacity to infect 50 percent
of the people in the United States. And, the good news is, that the
mortality level is probably not as high as currently being
recorded. And that’s because testing has been
very heavily… heavily biased towards people that are ill.
And there has been little… little testing of people that
are less ill or has very mild symptoms. So the current
mortality estimate is like 3 to 4 percent. It’s probably not
nearly that high under if you were to find everybody
that was tested that was actually infected, include
everyone that had mild infections. But it’s still, most likely, at
least point five percent. And that’s 10 to 20 times worse
than seasonal flu… than typical seasonal flu. I’m not talking about, like,
the bad outbreaks in the past, but just regular one we see
every year. So that’s probably 10 or 20 times the rate
of that, and the normal flu, in an average year and in
this country, in the United States kills about 30 to 40
thousand people. And, you know, it… on top of that, you know,
that’s despite the fact that we have a vaccine for the flu. And
so a lot of the spread is load, and a lot of severe is
prevented by the vaccine. So this could definitely
be much, much worse than that. Chris: Wow. OK. So if you were
to put on a scale of 1 to 10. The common flu would rank in,
what, between 1 and 10 in terms of the threat level? Dr.: Yeah, th,is
is very highly subjective. So, I guess, I might put it at
somewhere like 2 or 3? And then this virus, I
don’t know… 7? 8? Chris: Wow. OK. So
an orders of magnitude greater. OK. So you’re saying the common
flu kills about 30000-40000 people a year, despite us
having vaccines and being able to control, or, at least, limit
the spread of the contagion. And you’re saying also that the
coronavirus is 10 to 20 times more deadly than the common flu? Dr.: Yes. Chris: So are we looking
at a potential casualty, or mortality rate, or number in
the hundreds of thousands in America alone? Dr.: Yeah there are estimates
that it easily will be over a million. Chris: Wow. Dr.: Oh… right. So it is
definitely something of serious concern. And, of course, that risk…
the risk of death is not even across the population, right?
So some people are definitely much more at risk than others. Chris: Mmm. We’ve heard that it
seems like people that have respiratory problems or people,
I guess, the median age, or something like that, is 80
years old or something like that? Dr.: Right. Right. So… Definitely people that have
predisposing chronic medical illnesses are much
higher risk. So people with diabetes,
cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease… they’re at
higher risk. And then the other major, major risk is age.
So the… if you trust the data coming out of China, which
is a… another long conversation, b.ut if we
trust the data coming out of China, the risk of dying
starts to rise very, very gradually at… in
young adulthood. And then takes off rapidly around
age 45 or 50. So it’s kind of a exponential
curve. So it’s very flat at the beginning in the younger ages,
and it takes off very quickly starting in, probably, the
early to mid 40s. Chris: Uh oh! Dr.: And people who are older,
have a much higher, definitely have a much
higher mortality rate. Chris: OK. So I’m definitely
moving into the upper age group here, so I’m
a little concerned as… as… as regular… Unfortunately, as regular
listeners to the show might notice, my throat or my
voice sounds a little hoarse, you guys, because I am
recovering from a cold. I can’t shake what I’ve got. So… OK.
This… like, do I have coronavirus? Like, how do
I know, and when should I go to take a test? I don’t want to be
pigheaded about this, but I also don’t want to be
a hypochondriac, and just, like, waste a test when
somebody else really needs it. Dr.: Very good question. So the clinical experience with
this coronavirus has been that the really defining symptoms
are fever and cough. Those are the two major ones
that pretty much everybody has. Unfortunately, of course,
there’s a lot of overlap with other viral infections. The…
this virus seems a little different than a lot of the
other respiratory viruses in that, although it can infect
cells in what we call the upper respiratory tract. So you
define the upper respiratory tract as being
from the neck up. So that includes the mouth,
the sinuses, the nose. Although it does infect those cells, it
actually tends to move very rapidly down into the lungs,
the lower respiratory tract. And, so, actually, a
runny nose, or sneezing… those types of symptoms
actually are not very typical, and suggest against
having this coronavirus. Chris: Are there any
other symptoms, like, that I should be aware of? Like… so
I read online. Sees this is the problem with reading
stuff online. You never know. Because people don’t even
cite sources, and then copy paste and then… you’ve lost
all ability to find the provenance of where this
information comes from. Like, somebody had written… If you take a deep breath, and
you hold your breath for 10 seconds, and if you don’t
feel like you have the cough, it’s a good sign. And if you
feel like you have to cough, maybe there’s already some
issues there. Can you shed some light on this? Dr.: Yeah, I’ve seen that.
That’s that supposed Stanford… board Chris: Yes! Yes! Dr.: Something… Chris: That’s bad information? Dr.: Yeah.
That’s total. Chris: You know when a doctor
says that, it just carries more weight, you guys,
I have to say. OK. Chris: Because I suspected the
person who posted it. Like, I don’t think you do a very good
job of this kind of information. And so here we
are. So you’ve dispelled one of those things already. Dr.: Yeah. I mean the problem,
so… a lot of that’s kind of stuff circulating. The problem
is that it… what it does is it’ll mixed something that’s
valid and you’re hearing from, you know, trusted authorities,
like, wash your hands a lot. Right. And then they’ll start throwing
in stuff that makes absolutely no sense. Like, you know,
gargling with the salt water. And taking the deep breath and
seeing if you have lung fibrosis. And, you know,
it really… it’s just really a lot of hogwash. It just… But
it’s cloaked in a way that makes it sound like it’s going
to be reasonable. So, yeah, we have to really
be careful about that. And, so, you know… I’ve been
posting a lot about this on social media, on my account.
And, you know, basically, what I’ve been telling
people is trust nobody. Don’t even trust me. Chris: What? Dr.: Try… Anything that
you hear, you know, try to cross-reference that against
reliable sources and make sure that you’re seeing the true
kind of scientific consensus from experts, from reliable
sources. Don’t pick any one person’s opinion too heavily.
Even, you know, even someone that’s fairly expert. Be
careful about what they say because everyone has their own
implicit own… own biases and own thoughts and own theories.
And scientists, especially, will espouse their
own theories. And other scientists may not agree. Chris: Right. Ricky: Dr. Yang, I have a
question. A lot of people are asking if there is an
immune booster. What would your… what would your
answer be to that, if I’m trying to make myself even
healthier than I already am? Yeah, I was walking by CVS two
days ago, and the whole immune booster shelf was
completely empty, which was crazy. There is no magic pill. There
is no magic solution. You know, the immune system… You know,
first of all, it’s not one system. It’s a really
complicated mixture of different systems that we don’t
really understand that well. But, in general, taking care of
your health, overall, so making sure there’s good nutrition,
you’re not overweight, just… Your health, your health,
in general, is the best thing to make sure you take care of.
So, if you have diabetes, make sure diabetes is under good
control. Make sure you don’t have chronic lung disease.
Don’t smoke. You know, it’s really just basics like that.
There is no… nothing.. . you know… Generally, like
you don’t get something for nothing. So there’s no way to
just take a pill, and make sure your immune system is boosted. Ricky: Thank you. Chris: Right. So no easy
answers on that one. Are there… are there… are
there any other myths that you can bust for us really quickly
just because… I know everybody’s reading
different things. Either home remedies, or weird witch
doctor-y kind of things that you’ve heard of, that… just
so we can dispel some of that? Dr.: Yeah. Let’s see… things
that I’ve been seeing on Facebook and laughing about. Essential oils? You know, that… the whole…
that whole Stanford stuff about the gargling and drink water to
flush it down into your stomach and all that. That’s… that
stuff makes no sense. Chris: OK Dr.: Let’s see… what else…. Well, there’s… there’s the
whole topic about masks. Chris: Yes! Dr.: And… and so
there’s a lot of information… misinformation, both
intentional and due to confusion there, which I think
you were… are talking about this. So there there’s
been confusion, I think, because… part of it has been
that the CDC information has been a little
bit conflicting, right? So, he has been telling people, Well you don’t need masks.
Don’t worry. Don’t bother about needing masks. And then at the same time… And so this has been pointed
out to me on social media, when I said that I basically agree
with that. It’s the same time as my point out, Well the CDC is saying that
doctors need to wear N95 respirators. So does that mean that… that
there is this conspiracy that ordinary people don’t need to
be protected and go… can go ahead and get sick and there’s
a separate class of rules for protecting doctors and nurses?
And I can explain to you the reason for that
kind of confusion. So… And I think to
explain that, I need to, kind of, go back a little bit
and explain what how the virus spreads. And if you
understand how the virus spreads, then you can
kind of understand the reasoning behind the face
mask recommendations, and what you should do. So, the first thing is people
talk about the virus spreading through the air. And media has
been kind of, really, touting that. And so
that is scary, right? So, there are two ways that
viruses can spread through the air. And the medical
community classifies them as, one, aerosol, and two, droplet.
And so let me explain to you the difference between aerosol
and droplet. So when a person coughs
or sneezes, or even talks, there’s respiratory secretions
that come out into the air from their mouth or nose. Those can
be subdivided into the aerosol or droplets. So aerosol is
the very, very fine mist that can float around in the air
for minutes, or even hours. And, of course, if you’re in
the same room as that person, or anywhere near that person,
that mist you can inhale it, right? So if there’s
live virus, enough virus in the person’s secretions to be in
that mist, then you can get sick… get
the infection from them. So this is the classic case
with measles and with tuberculosis. And so
that’s why, for example, at Disneyland there were outbreaks
of measles because unvaccinated kids were walking around and
just breathe in the air from other kids. So, you know, there
are studies showing this. Somebody has measles and and
you don’t have immunity you’re in the same room with them for
a few minutes. Your chance is almost 100 percent you’ll get
get the measles. OK. So as far as we know, this virus does not spread that
way. And when I say As Far As We Know, there’s a lot of
evidence that it does not. So, and the very closely
related virus SARS, the original one, that one…
there… there’s… there was a lot of observational evidence
of patients that it does not spread that way. It was never
observed. All… all spread could be explained by the
other pathway, the droplet pathway. So what is the droplet pathway? So the dropout pathway are
drops of fluid coming out that are too large to float, that
dropped to the ground by gravity, as soon as
they’re expelled. So they don’t travel. They just fall
from wherever that the person expelled them. So unless you’re
directly in the face of that person who’s coughing
or sneezing, and those droplets go right into a vulnerable part
of your body, which would be your mouth or nose or eyes, the
droplets will not cause you to get infected. The big asterisk to that, is
that droplets land on surfaces. And if you touch a surface, you
can pick up what’s in that droplet and move it, then,
to your… to your vulnerable areas by touching
your face, right? So, that, as far as we know,
and based on fairly good evidence so far, is how this
virus spreads. And that is exactly how the prior SARS
virus spread. And this is how many, or most, of the known
respiratory virus to spread including flu. Ok. So knowing this now, what
do you need to do to protect yourself? So one is that a lot
of this, most of it, is actually due to touching a
contaminated surface. That’s why there’s all this
handwashing advice. The other, now, is regarding masks. So if
you know this to be true, an N95 respirator is not needed
because the N95 is used to filter out aerosol. And the CDC was being extra-
super-conservative when it made that recommendation to health
care workers to use N95 masks. And that was conservative
because they didn’t want the medical workforce, which is
important for caring for us, to be… to get infected in the
course of caring for us. And, also, it was out of caution
because it was still early, and it was still not that clear. As time has passed now,
the CDC has actually relaxed that criterion. And at UCLA
Medical Center, for example, we have now moved to
droplet precautions, away from using N95 masks. So even the
medical staff are not using N95’s. The exception to that is
if you’re doing some procedure where there’s very
high exposure, and a lot of fluid is generated from the
patient because the procedure. But otherwise, it’s just
regular masks. And so in the public, then, as
I’ve told you, you don’t get exposed unless there’s direct
exposure to your face. So the mask is not necessary, or
shouldn’t be necessary, if you’re just casually walking
around in the public. So if somebody several feet away at
Ralph’s sneezes or coughs, those dropped… the
infectious material, the droplets, are not going to
fly through the air and land in your mouth. They’re going to
land on the floor, or on the shelf, or whatever, near
that person. So, you know, the masks, the regular
surgical mask, doesn’t ask… act as a filter. It
actually ask… acts as a physical barrier. So it does make sense if
you are, for example, taking care of somebody that has this
disease. Right? So if you’re… you’re taking care of them,
they’re in bed and you’re face to face with them and
they’re coughing, the mask will protect you from the splash of
the droplets landing on you. And there’s also, probably,
some protection, in terms of, if you touch your face and you
touch the mask instead of touching your nose, that may be
protective as well. So under normal circumstances, if you’re
not in a very crowded area and you can maintain distance from
the people you’re with, a mask is not necessary. Chris: I see. Dr.: So hopefully that
kind of provide some clarity. Chris: That provides a
tremendous amount of clarity! Whew! OK. So I had read somewhere,
somebody posted on Facebook, that Taiwan is sending one
hundred thousand masks to the U.S. each week, or
something like that. Is that unnecessary, then, based
on what you just said? Dr.: Yeah, I think it’s… it’s
unnecessary probably for the general public. But it would
make sense if… if people were going to be taking care of
family members or relatives who are sick. And it might make
sense if you are going into a very high risk area. So,
for example, you know… the CDC recommendations don’t
specifically address what to do if you’re going to an airport
or sitting on an airplane. It might make some sense to wear a
mask where you have no choice but to be very close to people,
like standing in line in the airport waiting to go through
security. So there are, definitely, there’s a role for
masks and that might make sense. And, also, while I’m here, let
me give a shout out. Actually my cousin is the Minister of
Health in Taiwan. So they’ve done an amazing job. And the
WHO held up Taiwan and Singapore as model countries
for how they’ve handled COVID-19. Chris: Yeah. I have to
be honest, I saw that. And I was thinking, my wife’s
in Taiwan, I was thinking, Honey, it’s time to
take a trip to Taiwan! But they’re not allowing US
people through anymore. So I don’t know. Chris: It does seem like… Dr.: You know, actually so,
your wife and my wife are both Taiwanese citizens, and they…
Apparently, the government is… is mailing
them to Taiwanese… As a Taiwanese citizen, you have a
right to a certain number of masks. I did… I just heard
that last night, and I’m not sure that’s true. That’s what I
heard. So yeah she can write to Taiwan and get some masks. Chris: OK. All right. Now,
there’s a shortage of masks right now because the demand
has spiked, right? And if I’m in a room… This is one of those weird
hypothetical questions… Where I only have one mask. And
one person has the coronavirus. And one person’s healthy. Who
should be wearing the mask, the person who’s sick, or the
person is healthy? Dr.: Oh, by far, that’s an
easy one. That’s the person who is sick. Right? Because the…
if they cover their mouth and nose, I mean, that’s the
only portal for the virus to make its escape from the person
and get to another person. Maybe there’s a mild,
mild exception. There’s some suggestion that maybe stool can
carry the virus. Although, if you’re exposed to a person’s
stool you’re really in trouble. Chris: Right. Dr.: But, in general, the virus
is going to be spread. So, if they wear a mask
that will prevent them from… Number 1, coughing directly
into you. Number 2, contaminating
environmental surfaces around them. Chris: Mm hmm. Dr.: So, yeah. It makes much
more sense for the sick person to wear the mask in
the hospital. That’s also the policy when a person has to
leave a room with one of these illnesses or tests or whatever.
They wear masks. Chris: I see. So if masks were
readily available then to help to contain this spreading,
shouldn’t everybody wear a mask then? Because there’s a lot of
people who walk around without symptoms, that are
coughing or sneezing and potentially spreading the
disease. Dr.: Yes… maybe. But, again, unless you’re in
very close proximity to those people… I mean, so,
yeah. So we can talk about the mask in terms of protecting
yourself. And so the WHO… the CDC recommendations, and what I
just told you, tells you that they may not be that
effective right, or necessary for that. But I… but you’re
right. And I think that that has been, at least, part of the
culture in places like Taiwan, that the mask are not even just
to protect you. But if everybody wears them, then
you can… then the sick people will… will be
prevented from spreading their disease to others… others. So
there is some rationale for that. I’m not an epidemiologist.
I’m am an expert in public health. So it’s hard for
me to know what the pluses and downside… downsides are
exactly. So infectious disease, this is… positions… we
learn about disease and how to treatment… but, treat
them. But the spread of diseases through populations,
that’s actually a separate area of expertise that we’re not
necessarily always experts in. And that’s
what epidemiologists do. Chris: I see. Thanks for
clarifying that. OK, so I have another question. I know that
tests are kind of… few and far between in the U.S.
right now. But if… if… if you’re like the medical czar,
and tests were available, would you… do you think it’s
a good idea that everybody be tested, so we know who has
and who doesn’t? So we have better numbers? Dr.: Yes. Dr.: So in the fantasy world,
where tests are unlimited, and cost nothing, sure. I think it
would make sense to go ahead, and test everybody, and test
them every day. And really be able to keep track. Yeah,
but that’s… obviously, that’s not possible. And so we have a
limited number of tests. And at the moment we we have to really
focus our testing on the people that are most at risk. And try to predict who is going
to need medical care first, and not waste tests on people who
are otherwise well and low risk. Chris: Can you talk a little
bit about the testing process. Like what… what sample’s
taken? How long does it take to process the tests? We see
pictures from, I think, from Korea where there’s
like drive-thru’s. And it seems like the test can be processed
fairly quickly, but I get different information online. Dr.: Yes. So, there are what…
So in general tests for viruses there are multiple
types of tests. This one right now that’s being
used is a direct action test by molecular method called PCR,
polymerase chain reaction. Basically, it is a way where
you look for the genetic sequences of the virus. And so
testing is focused on the… obtaining samples where the
virus is most likely to be found directly, which is again
respiratory secretions. And so… The…. As I
told you, this virus does affect the upper respiratory
track as well as the lower. And so, what are the
nasopharyngeal swabs, or swabs that they stick up your nose. Right now to collect kind
of the… the secretions in your nose. Those are what are
being tested. And once that swab is taken, in the
laboratory they extract that fluid, and they extract
all the RNA that’s in that fluid. So most of that RNA will be
from normal cells in your body. But if the virus is there, the
viral RNA will be there as well. And then, they will run
the PCR, and look for the viral RNA. So in completely
ideal conditions, the test can be run, and completed within
about six hours. Yeah. Chris: So these drive-thru’s
that are happening, are they going… I assume, then
they have to get the results six hours later Or the next day. Dr.: Yeah. So realistically a
lab can’t run individual tests one by one. So usually what happens is that
they’re batched, and then run in big batches. And so
generally you know most labs are going to be reporting out
the results next day Chris: I see. OK. All right.
I’ve got a couple other questions here. Dr.: OK. If I’m in a country where it
seems like the government is not taking this seriously, and
even in this country there’s some states out here like
everybody still out running around, like
everything’s fine. What can I do to protect myself,
or what kind of reasonable precautionary steps can
I take? Ricky: Good question. Dr.: Yup! Well, you can…
you can, obviously, avoid areas that are crowded. So you want to avoid any areas
where you can’t control your space away from the
other person. Unless it’s absolutely necessary. So
obviously if you’re going through the airport for a
necessary trip, you can’t control that. But, in general, you don’t want
to go to crowded type areas. So… and that’s why,
for example, all these sporting events been shut down. The
concert’s been shut down because you’re in a tight
audience and you can’t control being close to somebody. So…
avoiding those areas. And, again, probably most of the
infection is from environmental contamination and people
touching. So frequent handwashing, so soap
and water, are best. But… but, while you’re away from
soap and water, you can use any sort of hand rub, hand
sanitizer that has at least 60 percent alcohol, and frequently
cleaning your hands after you’ve had the touch things.
That’s the other major way. And so those are really kind
of it. I mean, those are the basic types of things to do.
And so if, you know, the very, very extreme case is that you
completely lock yourself away, and don’t go at all go out
at all. Don’t talk to anyone. Don’t let anything in your
house that’s been outside. And bleach everything. And that
would be a hundred percent that you don’t get it. But that’s
not life. So you have to kind of weigh it, and balance, and
live your life in a way that… that it’s still acceptable, but
minimize the risk as much as reasonable. Chris: OK. Dr.: Right. So there is risk of
dying if you go out on the freeway in your car. But it’s
an acceptable, reasonable risk. And so we have to view things
the same way with this, and everything else in life. That,
you know… there is some risk of being outside, and there is
some risk of being en routes. But if you do these things,
make sure no one’s coughing in your face, make sure
you wash your hands, use… sanitize them, you know, the
risk is is minimal and acceptable. Chris: OK. So sounds like you
don’t want to expose yourself unnecessarily, but
that also doesn’t mean you have to be a hermit and lock
yourself in a room. That is surely the safest way, but
that’s also not a way to live. OK, so here’s… here’s the
question I have for you… that my wife’s been like, because,
like I said, she’s Taiwanese so she’s getting double the
information I’m getting. And she’s concerned about
ordering food, or picking up fresh produce. And the, like,
if somebody is sick and they’re preparing your food and they
cough on that… OK. Now what? So… We’re not eating a lot
of vegetables right now. I have to say: my diet’s
not good right now. Dr.: Yeah. My wife’s the same. So, you know… So first
of all, you know, probably most of the touching is going on…
on the outside, on containers. So if you’re worried
about it, and you’re getting stuff delivered, you know,
first thing to do is decontaminate the outside,
before you… So, again, alcohol works. Bleach works the
best. So a very dilute, bleach solution. So like, point five
percent by volume is enough. And then the food itself. So,
again, soap and water actually are great for killing the
virus. So anything that you can soap down is fine. So, for example, a fruit that
you’re going to peel you could… you could actually
use your regular soap and water that you use to wash
dishes to clean those off. The other thing is
that cooking… So the virus is very heat sensitive. So if you
have a raw vegetable and you cook it, you’re fine. That’s
going to kill the virus. Salads, you know, obviously
you don’t cook. And so there you probably want to make sure
you very thoroughly wash. The other thing is cooked food
that you’re already getting. So maybe somebody already touched
the pizza that you’ve got, and you’re worried that the
pizza has… has the virus on it. You can actually
just reheat, re-cook, and you don’t need to do it to an
extreme. You don’t have to burn your pizza. The virus is killed
by 60 degrees centigrade for, at least, 10 minutes. And that
translates to, I believe, 140 degrees Fahrenheit. Dr.: For 10 minutes. You could… yeah, for
10 minutes. So you could heat it to that temperature for
10 minutes. So it may take some time to ramp up. So
you could… you could set your oven, you know, for 200
degrees or wherever. Put your pizza in there for 15 minutes,
and you don’t have to worry about the virus. Chris: I see. Actually very
good tips there, OK! So, Honey, we can
eat vegetables. We just need to cook them. My wife has gone to some
some extremes. We ordered a pizza the other day and we’re
using tongs to open the pizza box, and, it’s like, I
messed it up. And she’s like yelling at me. It’s like: I’m sorry I’m new to this! OK. I have a friend. His name
is Dansky. And his wife is pregnant and he’s concerned
about the baby inside. What does he need to be
concerned about, and what kind of precautions can he take? Dr.: Yeah, so all the regular
precautions that we just talked about. Right? So if you don’t
get infected in the first place, there’s
nothing to worry about. This is too new a disease,
really, to know, in terms of, effects on pregnancy and
babies. There is a small amount of data that’s come out in
China that seems to show actually that there was no
effect on babies. That they were still born healthy. And
that even mothers who got… who were infected
and breastfed, the babies actually seem still not even to
get sick from it… so… You know, these are
very small numbers of patients. And then the other caveat is
that these few pregnant women were actually actually fairly
late. I think that they were pretty much all
third trimester, so there could be effects earlier
in pregnancy, but… You know, we… we don’t know,
but there is no particular scientific reason to think that
this virus should be especially dangerous to… to babies
and fetuses. But we don’t know. Chris: OK, I noticed something.
When you… when you mentioned this, and every time
I hear the same thing, not to touch your face, I feel
so compelled, like, there’s an itch that develops on
your face, immediately, as soon as you say that. Like, I start
to focus on that. I also notice that Ricky, Jona, and myself
are doing our best not to cough. I can hear one of you guys
coughing over there. Better get away from me. Whoever…. So it’s like, it’s kind of like
we don’t wanna show that we’re sick or… But it seems like…
like what do we do here? The more we talk about, the more I
feel like I’m sick. Is it like a state of self-fulfilling
prophecy here? It’s like I just
want it to happen? Dr.: Yeah. ,Yeah I know.
It’s… You know, there are people, you know, people
that study this, and people will study every little thing.
And can’t remember what the number was. But the average
person touches their face, like, multiple times an hour.
It’s just… it’s just what we do. Chris: Right. Dr.: Yeah. Chris: So we should just wash
your hands more often. Dr.: Yeah, right. If you touch
your face with clean hands, you’re OK. Chris: Yeah. Dr.: So… Chris: I know what I’m doing
right after this livestream! OK. I’ve got a couple
more questions. I know that we’re running short on time
here. So I want to make sure I get some of these in. I want to
also let Ricky and Jona know, if there’s a question that’s
coming in, there’s a lot of people tuning into! It warms my
heart to know that our community is coming together.
There’s 960 people who are tuning in, and usually we get
about half that much for design. So this is a very,
relevant, hot topic that everybody wants to talk about
right now. So this has been helpful for me, at least. Ricky: I have a quick question. Chris: Alright go ahead. Ricky: Will summer kill it? A lot of people thinking that
the warm climate will somehow kill the virus. Dr.: Yeah that’s a… that’s
a really, interesting question. We don’t know.
The bottom line. So… lots of viruses… So
what you’re… what you’re referring to is that a lot of
viruses are very, very seasonal, right? So flu is extremely
seasonal. And, interestingly, at least three of the other
four of those common corona viruses that cause
common colds, at least, three of those four seem to be
extremely seasonal as well. They… they almost completely
disappear in warm months. And the original SARS, actually,
was seasonal. So, as far as we know, I mean, it only lasted
one season. But as soon as weather warmed up,
it disappeared. And it completely confused all the
experts because everybody thought it was going to come
back the next season. And it just disappeared and didn’t
come back. So will this virus behave that
way? We don’t know is the bottom line. There’s a chance
it may. And… even… but, even, historically even
seasonal viruses, when they first made their debut in
the population, oftentimes they’ve not shown seasonality
until after the first or two years as they kind of settle
into the population. So even if this one is seasonal, it may
not show that pattern in the first season. But this is all
theoretical handwaving. Nobody knows. Ricky: Very true. I’ll just
have one more question right now. What would you say,
because we’re getting a lot of people listing their symptoms.
What would be your advice, people listing their symptoms
in the chat, when they’re worried? So, again, fever, cough
are the big ones. If… if you’re overall a
healthy person, and you have a runny nose, that is… suggests
that it’s much more likely another virus. But it doesn’t
rule it out. Generally, I think your best off just
isolating yourself, wearing a mask so that you don’t get
other people sick, and that, you know, that this is
common for… Even if this were not a season where this new
coronavirus is here that makes sense anyway because flu and
other viruses are spread that way. And it’s just good public
policy not to spread those to other people as well. And I would say, you
know, if you’re older… so you know 50s, 60s, especially 60s,
and above, I think, and you’re starting to get
shorter breaths, or you have other chronic
medical conditions, like, you’ve had an organ transplant,
or you have poorly controlled diabetes… So if
you have risks like that, then it’s worth probably a call to
your doctor. If you’re otherwise young and healthy,
and you’re feeling OK, and you just have some cough and
some fever, but you’re feeling fine, or not… not
short of breath, then I probably you should just wait
it out and see how things develop. So I think that’s that
would be my general kind of guidelines. Ricky: Thank you. Chris: I know there’s some high
profile celebrities now that have been diagnosed with the
coronavirus. I think Tom Hanks and Rita Wilson and Idris
Elba has… they’ve been diagnosed with this? And I read
recently that… that both Tom and his wife Rita have been
released from the hospital. So that begs the next question is:
is there any evidence of immunity, or how long it
lasts after you’ve recovered? Like once you get it, and
you’re over it, are you now immune to it or do you get it
again? Can you spread it? Or what’s… what’s the
information on that? Dr.: Yeah, the immune system is
a big black box. And it’s very strange how the immune system
can be so effective against some viruses, and not so
effective against others. We don’t know yet.
Again, it’s too early. There are some intriguing
reports that are not fully confirmed scientifically yet
that some of these COVID-19 patients are actually getting re
infected within weeks. So… and there are some studies,
especially with the original SARS, that anybody
responses seem to drop very quickly after infection. So it
may be that immunity is not very long lasting. But that’s,
right now, that’s purely speculation based on
preliminary information. But if that’s true, that…
that’s bad news for vaccine. And if a vaccine is available,
it might mean that it would have to be readministered
very frequently. If it works. Chris: I’ve also been reading
about things that they say. More… more Americans are
going to go bankrupt than… that will be killed by the
coronavirus. So there is definitely going to be an
economic impact on us. And, do you, I know this… I mean,
I’m asking you to kind of, just, give us your opinion
on this, but… In us kind of isolating and shutting
down businesses, pretty much every business is shut down
except for the essentials right now, is the cure worse
than the disease in this case? Are we being reactive to this
in the right way? Dr.: Yeah, I think it’s…
that’s a very difficult question. And above my pay grade. But… You know, I… I think, just
like other things in life, and just like things we’re talking
about just before, there needs to be a balance. So you really
need to weigh risks versus… versus benefits. And I think this is a time, and
this is an issue, that public health experts that… the CDC
should be working closely with government officials to… to
decide where that balance should be, and also to put in
place procedures to… to minimize spread and keep
businesses open as much as possible. So there could be,
for example, policies about how… how many people
are allowed in the store at once, or… what kind of
decontamination needs to be done in a store, and
what surfaces, or things like that. And, unfortunately, it’s our
government and the CDC has shown just remarkable levels
of incompetence. Chris: Mmm. Dr.: Oh, you know, this
is something, you know, we need leadership. We need… we
need some sane, smart people to be leading the effort and…
not Kushner going on to Facebook asking a group of
people that he doesn’t know what to do. And, you know, I
would also put in a pitch that Tony Fauci, head of NIAID,
who is… in these current interviews looks like he’s
hoarse from talking and haven’t slept in a few weeks. He is a
voice of authority and sanity, and needs to be listened to,
rather than just pushed into the corner and
ignored by our president. Chris: Thank you for
saying that. I have seen Dr. Fauci on many platforms. I
was like, how is this guy getting around so much? And
you’ve just explained it. He’s probably not sleeping a whole
lot right now. It does seem like our leaders
are starting to respond to this, and treating
it seriously, and not spreading more misinformation, so… I
have some hope not a lot of hope for… in our leadership.
But I wanted to ask you this question about why… why,
culturally, or why is it that Taiwan, and did you
say Singapore, seemingly, like, model countries
and how they’re responding? What is it about these
countries that are allowing them to… to really minimize
the amount of infections? Dr.: I think it’s a lot
of factors. So one I think it is competent leadership. So
in Taiwan, for example, I’m sure your wife has also seen,
they have the… their health authorities have been extremely
transparent and very responsive to the public, and
disseminating information as much as possible. And they
acted very, very quickly. So they… they started putting
policies into place before there was even
the first case in Taiwan. The other thing, I think, is
that the public has been much more picking… has been much
more responsive and in taking action and listening to
those recommendations. And I think they learned from SARS.
So SARS was big in Taiwan. So I think the public took this
threat much more seriously from the beginning, also. So I think
the combination of these types of factors, I
think, is the reason. Chris: It seems that we’ve been
very fortunate in America, at least, that MERS and SARS
didn’t really have a giant impact here at all. And now
this is our chance to, kind of, deal with an infectious
disease. So I think, hopefully, this is a huge learning
opportunity about the importance of clear-
headed leadership, competent leadership as you say, moving
forward that… the people that we elect into office actually
do play a big role in moments of crisis like this. But what
do you think the new reality is going to be for America, like,
assuming that in a year or two, where we’re we’re way past this,
what do you think we’ll have learned, and what
will we institute in the future? Dr.: Yeah. So I… I hope that
this teaches the public to take these things more seriously.
And, I hope it motivates our government to invest in
the infrastructure, so… You know, I heard Trump’s talk
today about how the CDC is an outdated institution, and uses
outdated policies, and was never designed to respond to
this type of situation. And that’s just completely,
completely wrong. The CDC, until the last few years, was
the leading authority in the United States. It was the model
for how things should be done. It was prepared to
deal with new situations. It sent teams all over the
world when there were new outbreaks, like
Ebola outbreaks, because the government and the funding…
people in the government funding the CDC realized that
what happens there affects us here. On top of the fact that
we just simply should care what happens other people, rather
than not caring and thinking it doesn’t affect us. So,
I think… I hope the big lesson also is that there needs
to be infrastructure for, and support, for the CDC and
for scientists that are doing work related
to infectious diseases. Chris: OK. So you had mentioned
earlier that people are following you on social media.
Where are you? Like if they want to get more information
from you, where should they follow you? What
platform are you on? Dr.: I’m on… Stupidly, I’m
on Facebook, under my own name. Chris: So that’s how they
follow you on Facebook then? Dr.: Yeah. Chris: OK. And it is just
Otto Yang, do you know that? That’s your Facebook. Yeah.
OK. I’ll share that information in a second. Dr.: There are a couple other
Otto Yang’s. I don’t know if they’re real or not. I know
there’s at least one other Otto Yang somewhere out there,
but… yeah. Which is weird. Chris: Yeah when I search for
you a couple of popped up, and I’m like: No that’s not you…
OK. The other question I have is: we’re here in Los Angeles.
Where can I get a test? I even know where I’m supposed to go
if I want to get a test. Ricky: Good question. Dr.: Yeah. Well, you
would go through your own regular doctor… Chris: OK? Dr.: And then the doctor could,
then, contact public health authorities about getting the
test. That’s… At least, that’s the way it’s working
right now. As testing becomes more available, it may reach
the point that your local doctor can order it themselves.
But for right now, the testing is being prioritized and
decided mostly by public health authorities. Chris: Oooh that’s scary. Dr.: Yeah, at UCLA,
for example, only a limited number of people can order. So
we have now got testing up and running in-house, in our
laboratory here. And it’s really limited just to
emergency room and infectious disease physicians,
at the moment. Chris: I see. So if I call my
general physician and say, like, I’ve got this cold-flu-
whatever-I-got for two and half weeks, my throat is sore,
can I get tested? They’re going to most likely say No then? Dr.: They’re gonna say, yeah,
they’re gonna say… say that if it looks suspicious and
you’re getting sick, that they’ll call the
public health department Chris: I see. Dr.: And try to
get approval to get tested. Chris: Are there any estimates
as to when more tests will become readily available? Dr.: Yes, I think some of that
was mentioned, actually, in the press conference this morning.
So there are private companies that are now trying to fill the
gap that the CDC has left. So I think it’s anticipated
within the next few weeks Chris: OK. All right. So
you guys, we just need to stay healthy for a little bit here
and then more tests will become available, hopefully.
Fingers crossed. Dr.: Yeah. And you have
to do… you do have to remember that overall the
mortality is not that high. I mean. so, it is horrible to
think about there being a mortality of half a percent.
But on the other hand, that means that ninety nine and a
half percent don’t die. And I think the other thing to keep
in mind is that the mortality is, probably, at
least partially related to the medical care you get. So most
people die from lung failure, and they can be helped through
that by putting… being put on a breathing machine
on a ventilator. So, you know, a lot of people
can be saved if we don’t let the epidemic spread too fast
and overwhelm our hospitals so that we don’t have enough
ventilators. So protecting yourself will also serve that.
It will actually reduce mortality overall for
other people, or yourself if you are unlucky
enough to get sick. So, you know, I think…
think that, everything is intertwined and linked and,
kind of, points to it being important that we all take our
own personal responsibility. And I think the other
interesting thing to keep in mind is this age gap… age
thing that we talked about. So if you’re young and healthy you
probably have much, much… it’s not that you won’t
get sick, and it’s not that you can’t die, but you’re much,
much less likely for that to happen. Chris: Right. But also for that
same reason, if you go to visit your grandparents or your
parents who are a little older, you may be putting them
at risk, right? Dr.: Absolutely. Absolutely. So
take all precautions that you can. So make sure before you go
see them, that your hands are clean. That if you have any
sort of illness, either don’t see them or wear a mask. Make sure that you’re wearing,
you know, clothes. Everything’s been decontaminated before
you’re touching them or touching stuff in their house. Chris: So, Ricky, did you hear
that? Make sure when you go visit your parents, keep your
clothes on. Don’t touch anybody. OK. So before we say goodbye
to you, Dr. Yang, being respectful of your time, I know
you have a lot of things to do. Is there anything else you want
to tell us before we, kind of, end the livestream here? Ricky: Well, I hope that you…
the take home lesson is that you… you can, you know,
if you understand how the virus spreads, you can
definitely protect yourself. And in protecting yourself,
you’re protecting everyone around you, as well. People should not panic. They
should not be buying up supplies and everything to the
point that it’s hurting others. So try to
be responsible about that. And, you know, we are going to
get through this. So I just think that we should just be
careful and measured, but not panicking. Chris: OK. There you
have it, you guys! Dr. Yang thank you very much
for coming on the show. Ricky: Thank you so
much. Thank you. Yes. Dr.: Oh, my pleasure. Chris: OK. So this is how…
This is… Whoops! I just jumped past my slide! Hold on!
Give me a second guys! I totally messed up. OK, Dr. Yang, you guys, can
find more information about him just on plain old Facebook, old-
fashioned Facebook. Otto Yang. And there’s many, so just match
the face, the name, the profile, to the person. I guess that’s it for us.
You guys, stay tuned! In a little bit we’re going to do
another livestream. We’re going to do a fireside chat. I’ll
give you information as to how to join that, in a little bit.
And that’s it, guys! I will see you guys next time. Don’t
forget to Like, Comment, and Subscribe. And hit the bell
for notifications. We’ll see you guys next time. Bye everybody! Ricky: Thank you, Doctor. Chris: Thank you, Dr. Yang. Dr.: Thank you so
much! My pleasure. Bye bye! Chris: Bye.

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About Author

64 Comments
  1. Jack0 Trades

    Just one factor meat eaters !!! Everyone should embrace vegetarianism !!! Enough with those barbaric manners !!!!

  2. Scott T. {Auric Unity}

    Great information from The Futur & Dr. Yang! …..🙏🖖🤝✊ Stay strong, composed, & safe! Be well, & be blessed! ⚡⚡⚡

  3. TheComicalCanadian

    amazing video it was really entertaining

  4. TheComicalCanadian

    awesome content I really liked it

  5. Gdizajn - New Media Graphics, Dejan Ćirović

    Thank you The Futur team for your effort to create and share this. Cheers!

  6. katscandance

    Great way to spread more helpful information using your platform!

  7. Plastic Spoon

    Thank you for bringing on a doctor!

  8. Narcis Rus

    I don't have a lot of time to watch it. Quick question: How fucked are we?

  9. Juliane Bone

    Good job Chris!

  10. SNR1

    Learned a lot.

  11. Mathieu MacAdam

    At least Trump is doing better than us here in Canada – We still have flights coming into Canada today from China with no screening at the airports. A disaster.

  12. M I

    Cheers lads, great questions

  13. BASE

    How many Corona virus videos are needed, honestly? I’m an expert by now…wash your hands, don’t touch your face, stay inside, virus bad, no toilet paper, no respirators …we get it.

  14. riccia888

    Wow so the futur of man is to be under his wife. Dont be like him go mgtow guys

  15. susysann

    Unfortunately because a study found people touched their face an average of 23 times an hour and many times involuntarily. The masks protect you, most of the times, from yourself.

  16. Mariangel Martinez

    Great and informative thank you dr. Yang

  17. Lee Ford

    Thanks Thefutur and Dr. Yang for clearing things.

  18. FacTor

    37:47
    Doc: The virus is very heat sensitive. Dies at 60ºC (140ºF) within 10 minutes (or a little more for precaution)

  19. Zack Cowart

    Hydroxychloroquine!!!!! Please please look into this to treat this!! Less than 6 days!!!

  20. GetaboardTV

    Thank you for helping dispell the BS and bring the truth! Much appreciated!

  21. Paul Hoke

    Gramaphone!
    I already like this dude!

  22. Brian Fong

    49:06 Trump = bad

  23. Joel Sotelo

    Chris, get well, awesome information, really appreciated Dr. Yang's perspective.

  24. Rodrigo Vargas

    So don't be a pig and stupid… Wash your hands properly and frequently, don't cough or sneeze on other people's faces – or let them do it to you – and don't go exposing yourself to things you don't know the origin of… Pretty much be a reasonable and polite person that worry about your own health and that of other people…. Simple enough 😉

  25. david gladson

    Chris Do never stops adding value to our life

  26. Michelle Yu

    Great video! Just don’t touch your face when you go out and wash your hands right when you get home.

  27. Nishi Bhatia

    @Chris Do Thank you🙏 for bringing so much value to everyone specially in such confusing times.
    The questions, clarity, myths, everything about this video is amazing.
    I appreciate the intention you have for making this video 🙏🙏🙏
    Thank you @TheFutur team🙌

  28. Bitwise Magick

    I have been watching news about the virus since before it has became a pandemic and I haven't had any clear answers about how it started, how it spreads and how to protect ourselfs from it . Thanks to you Mr. Yang and Mr. Do now I know this at a very resonable level .

  29. Bahadur Khan

    Thank you Mr. Chris you are great.

  30. Rainer Kramm Consulting

    How to wash your hands wasn't talked about so here's a clear explainer.
    https://youtu.be/-LKVUarhtvE

    Also, one must wash all areas of the hands, including between fingers, just something most people don't seem to do. Also, been washing vegetables for many years with soap, so that's just a habit worth considering for a lifetime 🙂

    https://youtu.be/-LKVUarhtvE

  31. ka cem

    – Season heat (sun) kills the virus? The scientists don't know yet.

    – Closing your noises for 10 seconds to check if you are sick is also a myth.

    – The virus doesn't spread in the air (for example sneezing).

    – How does the virus spread? It spreads through touching & it infects the surfaces/stuff you touch, even if someone sneezes to your face it won't affect you that way as it is some sort of a droplet, so the gravity pulses it down where the sneeze direction goes, so generally for the public, masks are not needed, they only work as a barrier.

    – When I'm with someone infected, who should wear the mask? The person infected. Because the only way the virus goes out is through his nose or mouth.

    – If you are worried about consuming touched food, put the food in a 60-degree heater for 10 mins it's enough to kill the virus.

    – A running nose isn't a sign of corona, it can be just the flu.

    – If you are 40 and older, or you have some serious medical treatments you are the number one victim of the virus. (it doesn't mean those younger are immune to it).

    – Testing is limited & only provided by public health authorities.

    – There is a limited number of hospital beds.

    – You can be re-infected (Depends on your immunity).

    – The mortality isn't that high.

    – The safest places to go to? Taiwan, Singapore, Mexico.

    * Special thanks to @ChrisDo, @TheFutur & Dr. Otto_Yang

  32. Paul Kabon

    How have I never seen Batman get a cold? Not even one cough with all those bats.

  33. Тимофей Лещенко

    Thank you

  34. Gui Jorge Porto

    Very clarifying!

  35. ezoubir karam

    thank you the futur and dr Otto Yang for this

  36. Fierce Krypton

    16:00 spoken like a true Harvard student.

  37. VideoChimp

    Good stuff. Thank you. 👊🏼

  38. Jason Walker

    Thank you Chris!

  39. zwko streets

    The future bringing value beyond work 👏🏽👏🏽🙌🏽

  40. Peter Sierra

    Great intel. Thanks for this!

  41. zwko streets

    How long does it take the virus to show symptoms??

  42. Fizza

    Thank you so much for bringing something different yet much needed during this situation. Cleared a lot things!

  43. 立法院很忙

    Yes, we do get government rationed facial masks here in Taiwan 🇹🇼 . 3 per person per week, and it can be ordered online, and collected in your convenience store of choice. So far we have about 100 confirmed cases here on the island, most with travel history, and 1 death (with pre-existing condition). So yes, arming the population with facial masks does limit community spread of the disease.

  44. Lech Orlowski

    Actually, UK gverment announced thta 80% of UK population will be infected. And mortality factor reaches 7% (in Italy), so UK modelling indicats 260K peole to kill if NO DRASTIC measures wuld be takes (it could be lowered to 20K). Also it is high risk for younger, healthy generation 20-40 y/o. Immune "buster" will not work with this virus! Vitamin D in general protects lungs. But. Vitamins are not proven to significantlu imptove or cause damage. (You can easly manufacture vitamins under licence, under your own brand and make a lots of money). As far as face masks are concern, there is goverment regulation inplaced in Czech Republic that passagner is NOT allowed abord bus or any public transport without face mask. Again aconfusing informations if stool does carry Covid-19 virus.

  45. Mark Charcas

    Thank you for doing these videos. They’re not the main focus of your channel but I’m so glad you offer this content during these time.

  46. Cheryl Cadzow Art

    In Australia it started in summer. Our weather is hot some weeks cold with rain the next. If it is seasonal we are heading into autumn, so will it ramp up?

  47. blackknightkanos

    The Futur using their platform to fight the good fight <3

  48. Marian Sdraila

    This must be the most optimistic doctor I've heard speaking about this pandemic so far. Hopefully he is right and the rest of the world will not get hit as bad as Italy or China!

  49. Noble&Savage

    +-70% emerging zoonotic diseases are jumping from non-human species to humans. What would be the best (minimum intervention, maximum ethics) way forward?

    Hint: It's not business as usual.

  50. Neil Pearce

    Thanks for this Chris (and Dr Yang) 👍🏻

  51. Lulu Bell

    How about stop eating bata :))

  52. Justin Hite Art

    Yo Chris and Futur – I love you guys for opening this topic up on this channel. I actually trust this source, which definitely made me feel so much better and knowledgeable. Thank you also Dr Yang!!! Would love to see him on a followup if timing permits 🤘

  53. Francisco Guerrero

    Very good video Chris as always, but as Otto said, let's not trust him/anybody 100% and let's cross-reference other info. In other countries like Spain and Italy, you can't visit anybody, you MUST stay at home unless you need food or medical stuff (and there are some rules for that too). They reacted too late because they didn't take it seriously at the start and they all are regretting now (I can see how it is happening in the UK too, no strict rules now, regret later). People shouldn't go out to do exercise, visit family (57:00) or travel (unless very necessary), that's just going to make it worse. In this case, it's good to get info from other countries' sources (especially the most affected ones) so you can see what happened. This way you can prevent that the exact same things happen in your country.

  54. bOLT

    This video needs to be bumped up to more people. Let rationality beat the virus. Practise good hygiene and social distancing.

  55. aracelli650

    I've heard that if you drink water every half hour will remove the virus or stop you from getting it

  56. Ivan T.

    Not that I'm superstitious, but I found it hillariously funny that this is actually your 666th video!🤦‍♂️🤣🤣 Keep up the good work man!💪

  57. DashCourageous

    Thanks for some semblance of coherence of info, being in the high risk mortality zone as I am. This helps clarify what I'm doing and how I'm supposed to navigate areas.

  58. Manny Donaire

    Nearly impossible to keep kids 15-26 from hanging out with friends, large groups, or public places.

  59. Flávia Sousa

    Regarding the baby part of the talk on the video. Im from Portugal and we just had a big news outbrake two days ago that babies had been born free from covid-19 from their infected mothers. The babies tested negative.

  60. Diggy's Sandbox

    Thank You for the outstanding information. This would be a great video to break up into small pieces with questions and answers.

  61. Brad Houston

    Love you Futr people!! Stay safe all of you!

    😀🕺🏻🎥🏖🇦🇺

  62. SHaron Ho

    Thank you The Futur for educating us about this. We need a good design mindset and good health.

  63. Connie Woody

    Private

  64. evelyn fuentes

    I really appreciate you Dr. Otto! ! And to Chris & Futur team – thanks for making this vid happen!

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