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Top 10 MIND BLOWING Facts That Sound Like BS but are True


Mind-Blowing Fact That Sound Like BS, But
Are True 10. Lightning Strikes Give You Sweet-ass Tats
Getting hit by a bolt of lightning is not fun. Aside from knowing that you’ve angered almighty
Zeus, you suffer horrifying agony, terrible burns, and (possibly) a stopped heart. Oh, and you might just wind up getting a sweet-ass
tattoo. ‘Lightning Flowers’ (also known, less-romantically,
as ‘lightning trees’) are strange, fern-like, spiraling figures that can be flash-fried
into your skin if a lightning bolt explodes nearby. Essentially burns that are caused by static
electric traveling along the tiny blood vessels under the skin, they can last anywhere from
a few hours to months and months. A type of Lichtenberg Figure, they’re weird,
almost plant-like, and, to be honest, kinda cool. See, unlike most burns, lightning flowers
look intentional. The tiny little whorls, the way they radiate
out from one central point… it all looks like some ink artist has spent hours agonizing
over the design. Usually appearing on the arms, back, neck,
chest or shoulders of lightning-strike victims, they might make you look like a tat-loving
hippie, but they certainly don’t make you look like a burns victim. They’re also useful. If paramedics bring your unconscious body
in and the doctor sees your magic tat, he’s gonna know immediately that you need treating
for a lightning strike. 9. The Muppets Song Mahna Mahna Came From a Porno
Even if you think you haven’t, you’ve heard Mahna Mahna. The song has appeared in everything. It was made stupendously famous by the Muppets
in their 1976 TV premiere, having already featured on Sesame Street and the Ed Sullivan
show years earlier (complete with Jim Henson puppets). So, where did this globe-striding, era-defining
ditty come from? Err… a softcore Italian-Swedish porno. The year was 1968, and Italian films were
routinely flouting censors by filming softcore porn and dressing it up as ‘arthouse cinema’. In this instance, the titillating subject
was ‘Scandinavian sexuality’, which gave the Italians plenty of excuses to include
shots of hot Norwegian girls kissing, and even-hotter Danish girls posing as nude models. But the piece de resistance was a scene set
in a Swedish sauna, in which a bevy of buxom blonds stripped off, giggling, for the camera. Composer Piero Umiliani was tasked with coming
up with a catchy ditty for this mildly-erotic sauna centerpiece. He came up with Mahna Mahna. The producers evidently knew he was onto something. The same year the porno came out, they released
Mahna Mahna as a single. It got to 55 on the US Chart, caught the attention
of Jim Henson, and the rest is (unlikely) history. 8. F1 Drivers Have Their Weight Monitored More
than Catwalk Models Quick, what’s the most-restrictive profession
where eating is concerned? Most of you probably said ‘catwalk models’,
and it’s true that agencies routinely get their girls to starve themselves. Some of you also said ‘jockeys’, who often
take diuretics to keep their weight down. Both professions are crazy-bad for weight
watching. But there’s a less-likely profession that
may be even worse: Formula One. F1 racing is a scarily-precise science. Winners and losers are declared on fractions
of a second, and cars are so streamlined that they carry absolutely no unnecessary weight. An extra 5kg can wipe out 0.2 seconds on every
lap; a horrendous setback in F1 terms. As a result, drivers are pressured to lose
weight in order to compete. Over the last few years, this has gotten insane. Drivers now have to be between 60-65kg if
they want to compete in the big leagues. In 2013, Jenson Button admitted that he has
to starve himself, compete in triathalons, and avoid carbs like the plague to stay F1-ready. Others develop bulimia or anorexia. Some drivers have said they’re monitored
and restricted even worse than catwalk models in what they can eat, despite eating disorders
in F1 getting almost no airtime whatsoever. 7. Selling Sand to Arabs is a Lucrative Global
Business “He could sell sand to the Arabs!” is
one of those classic, slightly-racist expressions beloved by old, slightly-racist uncles the
world over. Just like “he could sell snow to the Eskimos,”
it uses a seemingly-unlikely situation to big up the persuasive powers of its subject. Although, in this particular case, its subject
isn’t all that impressive. Selling sand to Arabic countries is a lucrative
global business. Australia, for example, shifts tons of the
stuff to Dubai every year for construction projects. Germany recently signed a deal with Saudi
Arabia to supply the Wahhabist Kingdom with sand. Altogether, the global market for sand is
thought to be worth over $89bn. There’s so much money in the stuff that
mafia groups have moved in and started stripping tropical beaches under cover of night. And the Middle East is one of the biggest
market drivers. The trouble is that wind-blasted desert sand,
such as that found in the Gulf, is too fine to be used in construction. So Gulf countries are forced to import the
stuff; a lucrative market when those same countries are trying to outdo one another
with insane construction projects. 6. Female Hurricanes Kill More People than Male
Ones If we asked you to name a deadly hurricane,
we’re betting most of you would have a female name pop into your head (likely Katrina or
Audrey). There’s a good reason for that. ‘Female’ hurricanes are more-likely to
kill people than ‘male’ hurricanes. Since about 1979, hurricane names have alternated
between female and male. However, even when hurricanes were exclusively
female (1953-1979), how masculine or feminine their names were varied. In 2014, researchers at the University of
Illinois crunched the data of all hurricanes to make landfall in the USA, separating them
out into names that sounded masculine or feminine. They then divided them into hurricanes that
hit populated areas, and those that didn’t. For non-destructive hurricanes that missed
population centers, names made no difference. But for those that hit areas full of people,
the results were staggering. The most ‘male-sounding’ hurricanes killed
on average 11 people. The most ‘female-sounding’ hurricanes
killed an average of 59. The researchers theorized that this is because
we’re all hilariously sexist. We tend to think women are unthreatening and
less-powerful than men, so when we hear a female hurricane is coming, we kick back and
refuse to evacuate. When a male one with a testosterone-fueled
turns up, by contrast, we run for the hills. 5. Stayin’ Alive by the Bee Gees Can Literally
Save Your Life Oh, come on. This is getting ridiculous now. How could a 1970s disco song that just happens
to be called Stayin’ Alive possibly help you, well, stay alive? We’re glad you asked. It turns out that this particular Bee Gees
song averages 103 beats per minute. That’s pretty much exactly the rhythm you
need to be hitting if you’re giving someone emergency CPR. This isn’t us pointing out a wacky coincidence. Emergency medical courses (like, say, for
lifeguards or whatever) frequently train their students using Stayin’ Alive. The American Heart Association (AHA) has official
advice which says, in event of a heart attack (we kid you not) “call 9-1-1 and push hard
and fast in the center of the chest to the beat of the classic disco song “Stayin’ Alive.” The song was chosen because it hit the right
beats, and also because it’s famous enough to be known to the general public. In countries where the Bee Gees are less-popular,
songs such as the Beatles’ Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da are used instead. 4. A Woman Survived Jumping Off the 86th Floor
of the Empire State Building Stepping off the top of the Empire State building
is pretty final. You plunge 86 stories onto hard, unforgiving
concrete. That’s not something anybody survives…
unless their names is Elvita Adams. In 1979, the Bronx resident decided to end
it all. She took a ticket to the observation deck
at the top of the Empire State building, climbed the security fence, and jumped. When she arrived at hospital, she was still
alive. If you’re wondering how the heck this is
possible, we’ll end your suspense. Adams did jump off the Empire State, and she
did go crashing down onto concrete. But the concrete in question wasn’t the
sidewalk far below. After despairingly leaping out into the unknown,
Adams was buffeted by a freak gust of wind. It just happened to be strong enough to blow
her onto the ledge of the 85th floor, fracturing her hip. Before Adams could try jumping again, security
guards had grabbed her and dragged her back inside. Although no-one else has ever survived leaping
off the Empire State, freaks of nature occasionally do save those plummeting from great heights. In 2007, a window cleaner plunged 47 stories
and managed to survive thanks to pure luck. 3. Soccer Has Ended Multiple Wars (and caused
one) Passions run high at soccer matches. Heck, Europeans consistently beat each other
into comas while watching the sport. But could they run high enough to change the
entire fate of a beleaguered nation? The answer is undoubtedly ‘yes’. In the past century, soccer has been the driving
factor in ending three separate civil wars. Two of those civil wars took place in the
Ivory Coast. The first Ivorian Civil War lasted from 2002-2007,
and killed nearly 2,000 people. The reason it stopped? The local soccer team qualified for the World
Cup. On the back of their qualifier win, the Ivory
Coast soccer team dropped to their knees on live television, and begged the nation to
put aside their differences. They then arranged for a qualifier for the
African Cup to be held in a rebel-controlled city. This led to dialogue between the two sides,
leading to a peace agreement. When the second civil war erupted in 2011,
killing 3,000, soccer player Didier Drogba was instrumental in helping reach peace. The third incident took place in Nigeria. In 1969, during the worst of the apocalyptic
Biafran War, Pele brought his Brazilian club to the country to play the Nigerian national
team. Both sides agreed a 3-day ceasefire to watch
the match. On the other hand, soccer has also directly
caused at least one war. In 1969, El Salvador and Honduras faced each
other in 3 grudge matches. Blood was so bad that the final 3-2 to El
Salvador culminated in Salvadoran troops invading Honduras. 2.The Digit 1 Starts Most Significant Numbers
Random numbers are the bane of the trivia aficionado. Go to a quiz, and you might be asked to guess
the liters of wine Moldova produces, or the weight of each planet in the solar system,
or he population figures for random counties in Louisiana, or whatever. By nature, these questions are designed to
be impossible to answer. But if you want a head start, you should make
sure your guesstimate begins with the digit 1. There’s about a 30% chance that any random,
significant number will start with a 1. Logic tells us that this is plainly nuts. The chances of 1 or 2 or 3 or so-on starting
any randomly-selected longer number should equal around 11%. In practice, this doesn’t happen. After 1, the chances of a 2 starting the number
are 18%, and so-on until 9, which has an infinitesimal chance of showing up. This means that you can go combing through
any random set of significant data – baseball batting averages, the length of the world’s
longest rivers, the number of McDonald’s in a certain area – and your figures will
be significantly more-likely to start with a 1. No-one knows why this should be, but it happens. It’s even got a name: Benford’s Law, and
it has real-world purposes. People faking tax returns tend to insert too
many figures from the mid-range (4,5,6), instead of figures starting with 1, giving their game
away. 1. Cleopatra Existed Closer in Time to the First
Pizza Hut than the Pyramids We all know the Pyramids are old. They were built around 2,500BC, over 1,000
years before Moses is thought to have lived. But few of us realize just quite how old they
are. When Cleopatra was queen of Egypt, she was
closer in time to the building of the first Pizza Hut than she was the first Pyramid. Cleopatra reigned between 69-31 BC. The first Pizza Hut was built in 1958. That means the gap between Celo and a great,
big pile of disappointing pizza was 2,000 years. By contrast, the gap between the queen and
her ancestors building the first pyramid was 2,450 years. Look at other comparatives, and this factoid
just gets crazier. Julius Caesar famously got involved with Cleopatra,
and probably spent some time admiring the Pyramids. At that point, the pyramids were to Caesar
older than the oldest Roman ruins are to us now. Makes you think, huh?

Top 10 Reasons Why the Movie “Groundhog Day” is Actually Set in Purgatory


Top 10 Reasons Why the Movie “Groundhog Day”
is Actually Set in Purgatory 10. ìYou Are Not a GodÖî Phil Conners is stuck eternally in the same
day, February 2nd. The key to getting out seems to be the love and approval of his producer,
Rita, who may actually serve a higher function in Philís journey into the afterlife. Rita
may be breaking through the fifth wall, as it were, when Phil tells her that he is ìa
God.î Assuming at this point that Rita is merely a physical manifestation of a higher
guide which must argue for Philís release, then she is being pretty definite when she
tells Phil that he is not a God. She then qualifies it back to her role when she adds
on ìYou can take my word for it. This is twelve years of Catholic school talking.î
This is also important because Purgatory is primarily a concept which is taught in the
Catholic Church, and would be reinforced in Catholic Schools. 9. Some Souls Canít Be Saved Les Podewell plays an old beggar. No matter
what Phil Conners does for the old man, he will still die that day. Conners feeds the
old man, takes him to the hospital, tries to keep him warm, and even attempts to revive
him himself. Through it all, the old man still passes on that day. It is merely his time.
Conners cannot do anything to affect the situation, other than to try and make it a bit more comfortable
for the old man before he passes. This is a stark contrast to Philís own situation,
which can be affected by his actions. 8. Ned Ryerson Part of the purpose of Purgatory is as an
atonement for sins which occurred in life. This may be no more apparent than with the
ìchanceî meeting with insurance salesman Ned Ryerson, played wonderfully by character
actor Stephen Tobolowaky. Phil has little to no memory of who Ryerson is or was. Literally,
Ryerson is an odd footnote in Connerís life, but the opposite does not hold true. There
is a hint at a further subplot that Conners stopped Ryerson from dating Connerís sister.
This may have been just another night to Phil, but may have been the end of Ryersonís life. Assuming that everyone in Punxsutawney is
either dead already or a spiritual agent, this leads to a deeper question: What if Phil
Conners caused Ned Ryerson to commit suicide? What if Phil actually owes Ned on some level?
This is played out by Phil buying ìinsuranceíî from Ned. However, Ned specifically uses the
phrase that he ìsure as heckfireî remembers Phil. In that, Phil could actually be tied
to the eternal damnation of Ryersonís soul. Since Ryerson is always the first person Phil
seems to meet during the day, Ryerson would then become a type of Jacob Marley-esque warning
to Phil about the consequences of not changing his ways. 7. Danteís Inferno It does not seem to be a mistake that the
thing preventing Phil from leaving Punxsutawney is an inordinate amount of ìice and snow.î
This is important in that a sea of icy rain would directly correspond to Danteís Inferno,
and give us the reason why Philís soul is locked in Purgatory. The third icy circle of Hell in Danteís Inferno
is reserved for gluttons specifically. This is the place that Phil is destined for if
he cannot correct his ways. Is Phil a glutton? Absolutely. Look at what he does when presented
with a situation with no consequences initially. Phil does everything to excess. He eats to
excess. He has sexual relations with underage girls in excess. When he chooses to die, he
even dies to excess. The only excess that we are not shown is whatever
excess may have caused his death on the night of February 1st. The police officer alludes
to this when he tells Phil that he will certainly die if he goes forward. Why does Phil die
in every other way, but never again by braving the elements of the storm? Somehow, Phil understands
that out there is a different and more eternal type of death. 6. Cerberus If Phil Conners really is in a Purgatory called
Punxsutawney right next door to the third level of hell in Danteís Inferno, then there
has to be a key to his escape. In the Inferno, the third circle is protected by the mythical
beast Cerberus. This is important because, in the Aeneid, Cerberus is only soothed to
sleep by a song. Music soothes the savage beast, a theme which is later echoed in media
such as Harry Potter and the Sorcererís Stone, is one that is echoed throughout literature. The answer to Philís eventual release is
hinted at throughout the movie. Phil starts out possessing no discernible musical talent.
It is stressed by Rita that her love will be able to play an instrument. She never mentions
the possibility of calming a hellish beast which may let him cross out of his particular
Hell. It does not mean that said beast is not in the background, though. Phil spends
possibly years learning to play the piano, in an effort to impress Rita. When Phil starts
playing music during the party, the music soothing a savage beast may be the key to
Phil ìmoving on.î 5. Phil Gets A Glimpse Of The True Rita Rita, in many ways, appears to be the key
to Philís salvation. If the object was merely attaining the love of another individual,
then Phil would have accomplished that goal with any of the various seductions that he
did about town. Nancy accepting his marriage proposal would initially seem to have fulfilled
the requirement, but clearly it did not, hence yet another death. The point is that there
is something special about Rita, who is not only a woman, but possibly a metaphysical
key, literally guiding him onto a higher plane of existence. The keys to Ritaís heart are also coincidentally
the keys to Philís ìsalvation.î When Phil lists all the things that he knows about Rita,
he mentions that she ìlooks like an angel in the snow.î Even the ice sculpture that
Phil makes of Rita takes on an angelic quality. This transcendent view may give Phil his only
true glimpse of what Rita truly is. Rita may legitimately be an angel, as well as a spiritual
guide sent to take Phil to his final destination. After all, he has never worked with, or met,
Rita before the previous day. She is labeled as a ìproducer.î Phil may
well be her production. 4. Marie De France If Rita is seen an angelic spirit guide who
is giving Phil the tools he needs in order to get past Purgatory, then learning French
and French poetry is an oddly specific request. One possibility for this might be to direct
Phil to discover the works of Marie de France. Marie was a French poetess from the twelfth
century. Among the most important of her works are a tome entitled Lais, as well as The Purgatory
of St. Patrick. Lais is a series of love poems, which Phil
would have almost certainly found in order to impress Rita with his knowledge. The lovers
in Lais are often tortured and made to suffer for their love, regardless of whether or not
they are being unfaithful to another lover. The Purgatory of Saint Patrick concerns Patrickís
ascension, in which he must say the name of Christ in order to pacify horrors. If Rita
can only give clues, then directing Philís obvious affection study tortured lovers and
Purgatory would be a good start to his eventual salvation. 3. Danny Rubin Danny Rubin was the writer of the original
screenplay for Groundhog Day, and even wrote a book entitled How To Write Groundhog Day.
In the book, Rubin admits that he only had a ìhigh concept,î in which the main character
was ìthe only variable in the universe.î Originally, the idea was referred to as ìTime
Machine,î and the character was forced to relive the same day over and over again due
to a time loop. Rubin states that he was completely unaware of Frederick Nietzscheís theory of
eternal reoccurrence when he wrote the screenplay. The point? Rubin only had the concept, as
well as the writing for the screenplay. There was rather intentionally not a specific direction
he was going in besides the original ìhigh conceptî of a guy repeating the same day
over and over again, but being able to remember the days gone past. There is also the important
caveat that Conners can remember dying, but not what death itself is like. In this, Rubin
leaves the reasoning and deeper meaning of Groundhog Day completely open to interpretation,
without no direction other than his original idea of a guy repeating a day over and over
again. 2. Phil Has ìUnfinished Businessî In life (contrary to his own narcissism,)
Phil Conners did not unleash any of his true potential. He never learned another language,
had a real relationship, tapped into his innate musical talent, and was certainly never generous.
It appears that most every day of Philís life was a complete and total waste. One of the most common tropes in ghost stories
is that they have ìunfinished businessî to be completed before they can ìcross over.î
Phil did not have unfinished business ó he had an unfinished life. Therefore, Phil had
to take the same day over and over again, which was probably as many days as he had
lived up to that point, in order to simply get to the point where he should have been
at the time of his death. In order to escape Purgatory, Phil must become a better soul
worthy of Heaven so that his guide can present him. For Phil, this meant a literal eternity
unlocking what was already there. 1. Phil Remembers Dying, But Not Death Phil tries to escape his situation via death
itself, but quickly learns that death is not actually a solution to his problems, because
every time he dies, he simply wakes up and it is the previous morning. For Phil, there
is nothing beyond dying except for the next day, which is the same day that he has already
lived. This could be because Phil is, in fact, already dead. He doesnít remember the next
phase because he is already in it. The only variable from one identical day to
the next is Phil Conners. You donít really meet the rest of the town until after Phil
wakes up the next day. There is a closing of the eyes and a reopening of them, but there
is no beyond. There is no spiritual reset that Phil remembers. It could possibly be
that that is a door in which Phil has already passed through.

Top 10 Famously Bad Predictions Experts Didn’t Actually Make


We all enjoy pointing fingers at experts when
they make mistakes. Popular sites love to publish hack lists of
embarrassingly wrong predictions by famous people, complete with snappy image macros
and a dump truck full of condescension .?It?s understandable: seeing someone successful
make obvious errors of judgment helps us feel better about our own bloopers. Yet in our eagerness to point out their blunders,
we often end up getting it very wrong. For instance: 10. “We Can Close the Books on Infectious Diseases.” Allegedly: William H. Stewart was a U.S. Surgeon General
from 1965 to 1969. He is the man responsible for those cheerful
warning labels you see on your cigarette packs.?In 1969, he supposedly made the above statement
to the U.S. Congress. His claim was soon disproved by the emergence
of AIDS and other virulent diseases. Even William?s 2008 obituary mentions the
criticism he received because of his optimistic prediction. But Actually: William never spoke those words. Two authors performed a rigorous search for
the primary source of this quote. They failed to find any. More than that, secondary sources disagree
on the date of the alleged statement: was it 1967 or 1969? There is only a single book that points to
the primary source of the quote. The book claims it comes from a speech William
gave in 1967, at the 65th Annual Meeting of the Association of State and Territorial Health
Officers.?But guess what? That speech contains no such quote at all!?Not
only that, but in that same speech William actually said this: ?Warning flags are still flying in the communicable
disease field … While we are engaged in taking on new duties … we cannot and must
not lose sight of our traditional program responsibilities.? That doesn?t quite sound like a man ?closing
books? on infectious diseases, does it? 9. “This ‘Telephone’ Has Too Many Shortcomings
to be Seriously Considered as a Means of Communication.” Allegedly: In 1876 William Orton, the president of Western
Union, was offered to buy a patent from a man you may have heard of – Alexander Graham
Bell. The patent? A little invention called the telephone. William Orton?s response? That shortsighted quote above!?How could it
be that William Orton didn?t immediately see the potential of this technology? But Actually: The answer is simple: he did! He just didn?t want to pay for Bell?s version. In fact, what William Orton likely said was
?this electric toy has too many shortcomings ? ? He was trying to downplay the importance
of specifically Bell?s invention, not the idea of telephone as a whole.?How do we know
this? Because in less than a year Orton had started
another company – American Speaking Telephone – to develop his own version of the device. What?s more, Orton?s telephone even ended
up being superior to Bell?s.?Aggressive market competition followed, culminating in a court
case. Something about Orton supposedly stealing
Bell?s ideas, which seems silly. It ended in 1879 with Western Union giving
up the telephone business. More importantly, all of Western Union?s telephone
patents were assigned to Bell Company. We bet William Orton wished he had just bought
Bell?s patent in the first place. 8. “Computers in the Future May Weigh No More
than 1.5 Tons.” Allegedly: This chuckle-worthy quote comes from an old
Popular Mechanics magazine. The quote found its way into many compilations
of bad predictions. Anyone reading it today on their tiny smartphone
can only laugh at the hilariously conservative estimate. But Actually: This quote is from an issue of March 1949. Only two short years before that the first
general purpose computer was launched. It was a little thing called the ENIAC and
it weighed 30 tons.?Popular Mechanics were making their prediction within that specific
technological framework. In fact, here?s the full quote: ?Where a calculator like ENIAC today is equipped
with 18,000 vacuum tubes and weighs 30 tons, computers in the future may have only 1000
vacuum tubes and perhaps weigh only 1? tons.? To be fair, Popular Mechanics did fail to
anticipate revolutionary inventions like transistors and microchips. But even so, their prediction still stood
the test of time almost ten years later. In 1957, the IBM 608 came out. It was the first transistor-based computer. Its weight? 1.2 tons.?In the rapidly-evolving computer
industry, this prediction isn?t quite the laughable gaffe we make it out to be. 7. “Fooling Around with Alternating Current
is Just a Waste of Time. Nobody will Use It, Ever.” Allegedly: This 1889 quote is brought to you courtesy
of Thomas Edison, one of the most well-known American inventors. It?s enough to look at almost any electrical
appliance in your home to discover how wrong his prediction was.?Nowadays, alternating
current (AC) is exactly what delivers electricity to households. Yet Edison called it ?a waste of time.? Oops! But Actually: Edison?s words are far from a genuine attempt
at predicting the future. If anything, they were the desperate cry of
a man personally threatened by the invention of AC. You see, Edison was earning money on his own
invention: the direct current (DC).?Any progress on the AC front was automatically bad news
for Edison.?Thus, Edison stopped at nothing to undermine and discredit AC. He lobbied the US government to ban it. He went to great lengths to portray AC as
dangerous. He even staged public AC electrocutions of
animals, including a freaking elephant.?Unfortunately for Edison, AC won the ensuing ?war of the
currents? and became the main method of distributing electricity. Seen in that light, Edison?s words are no
more than a failed smear campaign. They are the equivalent of Sony claiming that
the X-Box lost the console war. That actually happened, by the way … in
2001. 6. “I Think There is a World Market for Maybe
Five Computers.” Allegedly: This 1943 quote is attributed to Thomas J.
Watson, who was the chairman and CEO of IBM. What a puzzling statement from the head of
a company that would eventually become one of the leading computer manufacturers in the
world.?Was Watson ill when he said something so bafflingly wrong? But Actually: Watson never said anything like that. This quote is not mentioned by any major newspapers
or magazines. There are no speeches, meetings notes or letters
that hint at him entertaining this idea.?The attribution first appeared in 1986, when a
Usenet poster used the alleged quote as his signature. However, an earlier Usenet discussion points
at these words having nothing to do with Watson. Instead, a similar sentiment was supposedly
expressed by a Cambridge Professor Douglas Hartree in 1951.?It?s not certain whether
Hartree indeed said something along those lines. But notably, even if he did, he was talking
about the first, large, very specialized computers that he himself developed. They were to modern PCs what Godzilla is to
a pet lizard.?Suddenly his market-size estimate sounds a lot less off base. 5. “There is Nothing New to be Discovered in
Physics Now. All That Remains is More and More Precise
Measurement.” Allegedly: Lord ?Absolute Zero? Kelvin is said to have spoken these words
in 1900. To a bunch of physicists at the British Association
for the Advancement of Science, no less. That?s not an audience you want to make such
an obvious blooper in front of, is it? But Actually: The quote is disputed. There are no primary sources documenting Kelvin?s
words. Even some people who have previously used
this quote as an example are questioning its origin.?More importantly, in the same year
as he supposedly made the wrong prediction, Kelvin spoke about ?two clouds on the horizon
[of theoretical physics.]? These clouds were eventually addressed by
the emergence of revolutionary ideas like quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. So it appears Lord Kelvin was just a tad more
open minded about new possibilities than his alleged statement would have us believe. 4. “There is No Reason for Any Individual to
Have a Computer in His Home.” Allegedly: This was said in 1977 by Ken Olsen – founder,
president and chairman of Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). DEC was a major player in the computer industry
and the first company to introduce a mini computer to the market.?How foolish it was
of Ken to dismiss a huge potential market for personal computers, when his own company
was busy developing computer equipment. But Actually: Yup, Ken Olsen did say something like that. But he wasn?t talking about PCs. He was referring to a central computer controlling
things at home. That?s right, he was essentially describing
the dangers of HAL 9000.?Olsen was actually exasperated over what he felt was a ?ridiculous? interpretation of his words. He stressed that, at the time of the quote,
his whole family was already using the equivalents of personal computers. So, did Ken wrongly predict the future importance
of personal computers? Most likely not. Did 2001: A Space Odyssey make him a little
paranoid? Quite possibly. 3. ?Who the Hell Wants to Hear Actors Talk?? Allegedly: Harry Warner of Warner Brothers spoke these
words in 1926. How strange to see such lack of foresight
from the co-founder of a huge movie studio.?Really, Harry? You?d rather movies stayed silent forever? But Actually: Not at all. Harry was just being a shrewd businessman. Here?s the full quote: ?Who the hell wants
to hear actors talk? The music – that?s the big plus about this.? Harry was not dismissing the use of sound
in movies. He was, however, suggesting to use it for
music as first priority. In the silent era, movie studios employed
musicians to provide live accompaniment to films. By ?canning? the music, Warner Brothers could
spare the musicians? salaries, which would be a significant cost
cut.?On top of that, prior attempts at making ?talking? films had flopped, so Harry was naturally
being cautious. It also didn?t help that actors of the era
were hired for their looks and many had terrible voices.?Anyone who heard Pierce Brosnan sing
in Mamma Mia may look more kindly upon Harry Warner. 2. “640K Ought to be Enough for Everybody.” Allegedly: This 1981 quote comes from none other than
Bill Gates himself, referring to the amount of usable RAM. For a man who started the Microsoft powerhouse,
and one of the richest people alive, he sure was laughably mistaken.?Many of today?s games
need 4GB of RAM to run smoothly, which shows just how wrong Gates was. But Actually: The quote seems to be an urban legend. Bill Gates himself, while admitting many past
errors of judgement, denies ever saying it. Nobody can identify the true origin of the
quote.?We do know Gates is responsible for the optimistic prediction of eradicating spam
by 2006. Check your mailbox. That didn?t quite pan out, did it? However, the specific 640K quote is just a
myth that manages to get Bill Gates really fired up. Maybe that?s exactly why people keep bringing
it up? 1. “Everything that Can be Invented has Been
Invented.” Allegedly: Charles H. Duell was the commissioner of US
Patent Office. In 1899, he definitively concluded that people
were just about done with the whole ?inventing new stuff? business.?Soon afterwards, the
20th century proved him wrong by giving us the miracle of human flight, space travel,
and blankets that you can wear directly on your body.?As the man in charge of the US
Patent Office, Duell should really have known better! But Actually: Oh, he knew better. In fact, he was convinced that inventions
of the 20th century would dwarf all prior progress.?So why would he say something so
patently (yes, we went there) stupid??The answer is simple: he never said it.?A librarian
named Samuel Sass set out to find the original source of the alleged quote. He concluded that, far from pulling the brakes
on innovation, Duell actually lobbied for improvements to the US patent system to encourage
potential inventors. So where did the quote come from? Sass suggests that it surfaced as the result
of a 1843 report by the Henry L. Ellsworth – Patent Office commissioner at the time. Henry used “a bit of rhetorical flourish
to emphasize that the number of patents was growing at a great rate.” At some point, his words were taken out of
context, misquoted, and then wrongly attributed to Duell. Authors Cerf and Navasky were behind a 1984
book The Experts Speak, which repeated and popularized the misattributed quote. This is what Sass had to say about them:?”Evidently
it did not occur to Cerf and Navasky to question that statement. They simply copied it from the earlier book. One can expect that in the future there will
be more such copying because it is easier than checking the facts.” Oh snap, now that’s some Sass!

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Top 10 BIZARRE Things That Are Actually 100% LEGAL


Most things that are considered to be strange,
dangerous, or offensive eventually become illegal at some point in time. However, there are a few things that are truly
unsettling, and yet somehow, they are perfectly legal. Here are the top 10 outrageously strange things
that are actually legal. 10. Too Many Babies Mitsutoki Shigeta is the son of a Japanese
billionaire. When he turned 24, he decided that he wanted
to have a big family with lots of children. Sure, this seems normal, but instead of finding
a girlfriend or a wife and trying to make babies the old fashioned way, he hired multiple
surrogate mothers in Thailand to carry his DNA. Surrogate mothers in Thailand can earn up
to $10,000 for each baby. In 2014, Shigeta paid ten different surrogate
mothers to carry his children, and ended up with a total of 16 babies. According to witnesses, he wanted to make
10 to 15 babies per year for the rest of his life. Despite the fact that Shigeta’s lawyer keeps
insisting that his client just wants a big family, no one seems to believe it. Even Interpol thought that there is a darker
motive at work, and yet they cannot find any evidence of human trafficking. Thailand actually passed a new law in 2015
claiming that it is illegal for foreigners to use Thai mothers as surrogates. As soon as it was illegal in Thailand, Shigeta
jumped ship and began making babies in Cambodia. In 2016, three more of his children were found
living with nannies. According to someone who worked at a Cambodian
fertility clinic, they say that one day, Mitsutoki Shigeta would like his gigantic clan of children
to vote for him so he can win elections, as well as run his business empire. He was quoted saying that he isn’t going
to stop making more babies until the day he dies. 9. It Will Cost an Arm and a Leg It’s definitely not legal to keep freshly
severed human body parts lying around the house… unless they’re yours. In 2011, Kristi Loyall was diagnosed with
cancer in her toes, and it was beginning to spread. She had to get her entire foot and a portion
of her lower leg amputated. When the operation was over, the doctors put
her leg in a plastic bag. She didn’t want to part with it, so, she
asked the doctors if she could take it home. It turns out that this is perfectly legal,
because… well, it was still technically her foot, whether it was attached to her body
or not. The doctors preserved the leg for her in formaldehyde,
and she passed it onto a company that specializes in cleaning flesh off of bone. Now, she has a clean skeleton of her leg. Kristy uses it as a decoration in her home,
and takes selfies with it. The foot is also a star of its own Instagram
account, called OneFootWanderer. 8. Gone Fishing Fishing is usually a rather calm pastime that
requires a lot of sitting and waiting. For Courtland Hunt, he wanted to take fishing
to the next level… by shooting fish with his Glock 9mm handgun. It turns out that as long as you are 8 miles
away from the Florida shoreline (of course it’s Florida), it is perfectly legal to
shoot fish. After all, if hunting with guns is legal on
land, why not underwater? Thankfully, Courtland exclusively shot Lionfish. They are venomous, and they do not have any
natural predators to keep their population in check. The only reason why they are in the Atlantic
Ocean is because they were once kept as exotic pets in fish tanks, and Americans began to
dump them into the ocean when they grew tired of them. Lionfish began to multiply and kill off other
species of fish. They are responsible for damaging natural
ecosystems of coral reefs. So, while Courtland and his friends have a
hobby that is a bit odd, he is actually doing a good thing for the waters surrounding his
home in Florida, and it is perfectly legal. 7. May the Force Be With You There are a lot of die-hard Star Wars fans
out there, but not many would go as far as to completely change their identity to match
one of their favorite characters. The Sith Lord formerly known as Eric Welch
decided that he wanted to legally change his name to Darth Vader, and he got his wish. His New York State driver’s license reads
‘Darth Vader’, and yes, he does cosplay. It turns out that you can change your name
to anything you want, so long as you’re not using it as a way to avoid your debt,
or running from a crime. You also can’t try to impersonate a famous
person, use racial slurs, or change your name to a number… that is, unless you spell it
out with letters. So, that means Eleven from Stranger Things
would have a hard time getting that on a driver’s license. Welch was raised in 8 different foster homes
as a child, and transferred schools 15 times. To make matters worse, he has been battling
leukemia for years. As far as we’re concerned, he can call himself
anything he wants, and thankfully, the law agrees. 6. Pigs on a Plane For many people who have a physical disability,
they will get a service animal to help them navigate the world around them. For someone with a mental condition, they
can get permission to bring their “emotional support animals” with them in public places. For most people, they choose a dog or cat
as their support animal. Technically, anyone with a licensed service
animal can bring it in a public place. US Airways complies by allowing service animals
on their planes, so long as the passenger notifies the airline within a year of their
travel date. They also must provide documentation from
a certified medical professional. Normally, people will bring their dogs or
cats in a crate. US Airways would have never anticipated that
in 2014, a passenger brought her pig on the plane. According to witnesses, the pot-bellied support
pig was squealing the entire time it was on board, and the passengers were not very happy. A man named Robert Phelps was unlucky enough
to have a seat next to this woman… especially when the pig pooed all over the aisle. According to Phelps, the woman talked about
the pig like he was a person, and her reaction to him defecating everywhere was that he was
“being a jerk.” The flight attendants had to ask her to leave. Technically, this woman wasn’t doing anything
illegal, but honestly, no one ever wants to be flying next to a pig on a plane. 5. Life Insurance on Employees This next one is immoral and unsettling, and
it is a perfect example of how the rich get richer. In the United States, it is perfectly legal
for major corporations to take out life insurance policies on their employees. So, if an employee were to ever pass away,
the company cashes in on their deaths. In fact, major banks like JPMorgan Chase and
Wells Fargo own billions of dollars in life insurance policies on their employees… as
if they needed any more money. What is even more upsetting about this fact
is that none of this money will ever go the the families of the deceased. It is intended to help the companies reduce
any loss that they may endure from the employee’s death, and the cost of finding a replacement. However, the amount they cash out on these
policies far exceeds what they are actually paying in expenses. 4. Imitation is the Highest Form of Flattery In the United States, there are strict copyright
laws that protect a company’s brand image, and lawsuits are filed on a regular basis
to protect their rights. In China, however, these rules are lax, if
non-existent. An American travel blogger spotted an “Apple
Store” in Kunming, China, only to realize that it actually wasn’t. The store claimed to be Apple, and everything
from the decor to the employee uniforms are a total copy. The computers, phones, and iPods are also
legitimate products. However, she realized that it was actually
an elaborate fake. Even the employees assumed that they worked
at a real Apple Store, despite the fact that it was not listed among the Apple website’s
official Chinese locations. One of the shop owners was quoted saying,
“There is no Chinese law against decorating my store the way I want to decorate it.” And they’re correct. While a few of these stores applied to become
official Apple stores for the sake of their reputation, others simply don’t care, and
continue to sell in their fake shops without risk of being sued. 3. Worst Gift Ever Getting a package in the mail is exciting,
even as an adult. Imagine opening a package to find… poo. Yes, even mailing poo is legal. On Black Friday of 2014, Cards Against Humanity
had a “Bullsh** Box” that sold 30,000 copies at $6 each. When customers opened their packages, they
discovered that it was very literally a dried piece of bull excrement. They’re not the only ones who have a corner
on the poo market. A company called PoopSenders.com specializes
in mailing elephant, cow, and gorilla poo as a “gag gift.” Sending poo is only illegal if it’s done
with the intent of harming or harassing a victim. If it can be considered a joke or for “entertainment”
purposes, then it’s perfectly legal… but obviously, unwelcome. 2. I’ve Got a Bone to Pick With You Facebook Marketplace is still a relatively
new place to buy and sell online, but they’ve cornered one particular market that eBay banned
in 2016: selling human bones. The only type of bones that are illegal to
sell online are the remains of Native American people. For any other race, it’s perfectly legal
to trade in dry bones for “scientific” purposes. Outside of private collectors swapping through
Facebook, there are independent businesses, like SkullsUnlimited.com, that sell bones
that are both real and re-creations. If you want your very own re-creation of a
Cro-Magnon cranium, it will only cost you $195. However, if you’re looking to buy a real
human skull from shops like The Bone Room, expect to pay $1,500 or more. One of the most disturbing facts about this
is trend is that for years, human skulls were a popular in India. One dealer was found with 1,500 child-sized
skulls in a single shipment, and he never offered a reasonable explanation as to where
they actually came from. Because of this incident, it became illegal
to export human remains in 1985. China picked up with exporting human remains,
until it also became obvious that people were being murdered to keep up with a trend. They outlawed it in 2008. However, it still remains legal to buy and
sell human remains in the United States, and for those with a fascination for the macabre,
the demand appears to still exist. 1. Driving With The Top Down Last, but certainly not least: in the United
States, it is perfectly legal to drive around in your car naked. Actually, this law changes slightly from state
to state. In Nebraska, a man named Nickolus Borgman
was driving drunk with his girlfriend when he was pulled over by the cops. Both he and his girlfriend were completely
naked, they weren’t wearing seatbelts, and they had open containers of alcohol in the
front seat. He was cited for a DUI, but in Nebraska, there
is no law against driving naked. In most states, it is legal to drive around
topless… even for ladies.

Fascinating Facts About the Human Body

April 10, 2020 | Articles, Blog | 100 Comments

Fascinating Facts About the Human Body


It’s no wonder that so many of us take our
bodies for granted; we take them with us everywhere we go. We’ve all been there when it comes to complaining
about aches and pains. People have been known to spend more than
a million dollars altering the appearance of their bodies. There are some, such as neuroscientist Randal
Keone, who want to end human dependence on bodies by creating computers into which our
consciousnesses can be uploaded. This is overlooking what a beautiful, elegant
machine the human body is. Its many intricacies, quirks, and surprises. So let’s break out the microscopes and give
the wondrous body a little more of its due. 10. The Prodigious Data of a Genome In 2003, after three years of work, the International
Human Genome Sequencing Project declared they had finished ordering the data that would
allow them to write a human genome. It was noted that this was two years ahead
of schedule. Why would it have been expected to take five
years to write out the amount of data in a human genome? Well, a genome is a complete set of human
DNA., which as we all know is basically the code that is ordered to make out a specific
human and their traits. Though specific traits such as hair color,
height, and such only comprise about 2% of DNA while the rest is more or less a standard
human template. The code is usually broken down into patterns
of the letters U, G, A, C, and T (CC, AT, TG, etc.). A single genome of DNA will have 3.5 billion
pairs of data in it to program a human being. This means that when the International Human
Genome Sequencing Project completed their mapping, they had finished the equivalent
of translating 100 encyclopedias worth of information! You’d think almost no one would have that
much to write about them, even after Twitter came around. 9. It’s Radioactive Part of the reason human beings are radioactive
is inadvertent. The radioactive element strontium-90 tends
to accumulate in bones because the body tends to mistake it for calcium. Relatively large amounts of that were spread
around around the world due to pervasive nuclear weapons testing, but since it has a half-life
of 29 years the worst effects of that have passed. The more pressing concerns for many are those
who absorbed the material from such nuclear disasters as Fukushima in 2011. The body more directly creates radiation through
its nervous system. Every time you use your nerves to move an
organ, think, etc., that causes the fission of a potassium-40 atoms, and that fission
releases gamma radiation. On an average human being, roughly 10% of
that will leave the body (lower on a heavier person). This translates to a lifetime spent sleeping
with another person being the equivalent of spending a few days in Denver or some similarly
high-elevation city. This is to say that we’re not radioactive
enough to produce much energy. If all the nerves in your brain were harvested
for electrical power, it would take roughly 2.85 days of charging time to fill up an iPhone. 8. Seeing with Your Ears If you look at someone in the eye, you’re
looking at one of the body’s most counterintuitive contraptions. When you see something, first light passes
through the lens of an eye, then it casts itself on the retinas in the back of the eyeball. In the process of passing through the convex
material of the lens, the light is refracted onto the retinas upside down. So how does it process as right-side up by
the time that the information gets into the back of the cerebrum where the brain is located? This is where the ear comes in. It’s the vestibular nerve in the ear that
connects your eyes to your balance center and corrects your vision for the brain’s
benefit. This has some handy benefits merely having
the retinas connected directly to the brain wouldn’t provide. For example, it’s the reason that you can
tilt your head at a 90 degree angle without the world appearing tilted. This discovery has led to the belief that
newborn babies, with their nervous systems that are still coalescing, actually do see
the world upside down. So far, though, none of them have said one
way or the other. 7. It Glows Sure, you’ve heard about how people with
a certain mood or style are glowing, but this is a bit more literal. In 2009, researchers Masaki Kobayashi, Daisuke
Kikuchi, Hitoshi Okamura photographed the first known images of a human being glowing,
although the basic science of measuring biological photon reactions had been known since the
1960s. They placed five test subjects in a light
tight environment, brought out a charge-coupled device camera, and spent seven hours photographing
them. While the temperature remained constant, it
was found that the amount of light/photons that their bodies emitted changed through
the course of the day. This is not to say that you should be hoping
for people that can save many on lightbulbs anytime soon. The amount of light is roughly 1/1000th that
of what would be visible to the naked eye. Still, since the rate of photon emission was
found to be linked to metabolism, Kobayashi suggested that after more study the technique
could be refined to use to diagnose metabolic conditions. In the years since, some studies have been
conducted with photon emissions to test the effectiveness of meditation. The results are reportedly promising but inconclusive. 6. New Body Parts at Different Rates Everyone knows from lessons about the dangers
of excess alcohol back in their teen years that we only get one set of nerve cells that
never replenish. But what about the other organs? How long does it take to replace them? Well, for one, the lining of your stomach
only takes a few days to replace due to the corrosiveness of stomach acids. Your skin cells are comparatively long-lived
with an average of three weeks. The liver cells stick it out a robust 150
days. The longest lasting of the cells that do get
replaced are bone cells. Those last long enough that your bones last
an average of 10 years each. Each cycle, though, they tend to regrow a
little thinner. This is why they’re especially vulnerable
among the older generations. As of 2020, the National Institute of Health
estimates that roughly 50% of Americans over the age of 50 have chronically weak bones. 5. Growth Hormones Can Cause Shrinkage In the early 20th Century, experiments in
injecting growing males with testosterone and females with estrogen began. The idea with the females was that it would
normalize their menstrual cycles, and for males that were not growing satisfactorily
to get taller. In the long run, the results would show the
effort was a misfire. The estrogen injections increased breast cancer
rates for women in their sixties, and for the males the testosterone could backfire
in a more immediate way: their pituitary glands shut down because the body was already full
of testosterone, so there was no growth. By far the most famous recipient of this misguided
treatment was Rainbow Connection and A Star is Born songwriter Paul Williams. Since his father was over six feet tall, he
thought the fact Paul was only four 4-foot-6 in fifth grade meant there was a problem and
started therapy. Williams said that it stopped the growth of
his bones and sent him into puberty at age 10. Some things it just doesn’t work to try
and force. 4. Why It Needs Metals It’s standard practice to include the heavy
metal content on a nutritional information label, but why do we need copper, zinc, or
iron? Well, we need copper to control heart rate
and produce all sorts of cellular tissue, from bones to heart cells. Zinc is used for cell division and dissolving
carbohydrates for heat and other forms of energy. Iron also is used in metabolism, but with
the addition of helping transfer oxygen to cells. The amounts of metal in a body vary significantly
and in some instances can be surprisingly substantial. An average adult human only has roughly 50-80
milligrams of copper in them, barely over 2% of an ounce. By contrast, it’s often said that an average
adult human has enough iron in them to make a nail three inches long. Let’s hope for your sake that this is the
only way anyone will say you have one of those in you. 3. Slowly Cooling Over the Decades Of all the entries on this list, this one
likely provides the single best piece of news. In 1851, the standard temperature for a healthy
adult male body was set at 98.6° F. Since then, studies such as the one performed in
2019 by Dr. Julie Parsonnet of Stanford University of 677,000 measurements found that the average
man’s temperature had dropped down to 97.9° F. It hadn’t been a rapid dropoff. The average had been roughly .05 degrees per
decade. Women came in at around 97.3° F. According to Parsonnet, the reason behind
this isn’t related to a lack of activity on the part of most people. It’s because with the adoption of healthier
lifestyle habits and improvements in antibiotics, the number of people whose immune systems
are constantly fighting colds and flus while remaining functional has declined. Not to mention that the fact that more and
more people are living in homes with reliable temperature control means that more peoples’
bodies no longer require inflammation to remain active. Who’s to say if it won’t turn out in the
next century that optimal human temperature is a degree or two lower? 2. Calorie Count Now this, admittedly, a fairly grisly entry
for this list. In April 2017, historian James Cole of the
University of Brighton was researching cannibalistic practices in ancient tribes to see if they
were performed purely for ritualistic purposes or for survival. To this end he decided to determine the fat
and caloric content of human bodies to see if they would yield a worthwhile amount of
sustenance compared to available prey. He came to a conclusion that an average adult
male human body weighing 145 pounds contains roughly 125,000 calories. Since the generally accepted amount of calories
a person needs in a day is about 2,000, that means a human body would feed another human
for slightly over a month and a family of four for slightly over a week, though as we
learned in the previous entry harder living certainly meant people burned through calories
faster. A red deer from the time would yield roughly
160,000 calories for less risk, which left Cole inclined to conclude that humans were
impractical as a food source and thus the cannibalism was likely more for religious
or militaristic purposes. Cole went into thorough detail in the analysis
of a body’s calorie value. For example, a one pound heart provided 650
calories. The liver is 2,569. The lungs are 1,596 calories combined. Skin offers about 10,280; bones 25,330. The delicacy of zombies, the brain, provides
2,700 calories. Hopefully no TopTenz reader will ever have
to put this information to practical use. 1. Own Drugs To think that in a few ways, every person
is a mobile drug lab. For example, there’s dimethyltryptamine,
which is a hallucinogenic Schedule 1 drug often extracted from mushrooms. It also naturally occurs in human cerebrospinal
fluid and related to dreams. It’s speculated that near-death experiences
are related to it. Then there’s the opiate pain reliever morphine,
which in 2010 experiments indicated (inconclusively) the brain creates out of the chemical tetrahydropapaveroline. More firmly established in the late 1980s
was that the body produces its own cannabinoids, specifically CB1 and CB2. Beyond the intoxicating effects, the National
Academy of Science reported in 2006 that CB2 is used by the body to regulate bone growth. Since then there have been findings that these
cannabinoids are used for regulating a number of other physiological functions, which is
why in some cases it’s better to rely on the body’s own cannabinoids than ingest
some more.

Tsunamis Are a Real Threat to the U S  Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard


Skywatch Media News for April the second
2020 if you happen to reside along the 1680 miles span that makes up the US
Gulf Coast then you understand the threats that this region of the country
realizes from powerful hurricanes and the storm surges and floods that often
accompany them these forces of nature occur on a regular basis from one year
to the next but we never know just how threatening they are until they unleash
their fury now it appears that another real threat exists near a sizeable
trench located in the Gulf of Mexico about 40 miles off the mouth of the Old
River Delta called the Mississippi Canyon it is from this specific region
that a potential 15-foot wall of water could scurry across Southeast Louisiana
if a significant underwater landslide were to occur but unlike the ample
hurricane warnings provided residents along the Gulf Coast a tsunami warning
would come with only an hour’s notice not days subsurface landslides in the
Gulf of Mexico have occurred about once every millennium and the timeframe for
the next big event in this region is about to expire although an event of
this caliber is considered low probability it is nonetheless very
credible in fact the National Weather Service has discovered evidence of prior
landslides in the Mississippi Canyon that could lead to a significant tsunami
this would be accomplished by the dislodging of canyon material that would
then lead to water displacement and the build-up of a large rolling wave that
could hit the gulf coast within a very short timeframe this computer simulation
displays a tremendous landslide along the Mississippi Canyon that generates a
wave between 6 and 65 feet across the US Gulf Coast a tsunami generated
by subsurface dislodgement may not be that noticeable in the open Gulf but as
the wave reaches the shallower waters the wave will rise up dramatically this of course is just a hypothetical
simulation of what could take place but if an event of this magnitude were to
occur and you happen to reside along the coastline of Louisiana a wall of water
as high as 15 feet or larger heading in your direction is certainly a
devastating prospect so what could cause a major tsunami in the Gulf of Mexico
it could be strong seismic activity measuring 7.00 or greater
although earthquakes of this intensity are extremely rare in this area the
eruption of gas bubbles originating from base sediment layers could also play a
role or a giant subsurface landslide on the edge of the canyon is a strong
possibility these three would be the most likely causes of a tsunami threat
in this region if you ever wondered how tsunamis are generated or what forces
may be involved in this natural phenomenon then here is a bit of useful
information tsunamis for the most part are formed as
a result of submarine earthquakes but they can also occur as a result of the
eruption or the collapse of coastal volcanoes or from massive landslides in
coastal areas that are most often triggered by earthquakes the wall of
water can be generated by the impact of the landslide as it enters the water or
as the water displaces behind and ahead of a rapidly moving submarine landslide
as shown in this Geoscience animated presentation we know that historical data has shown
that submarine landslides have occurred in the zones located across the Gulf of
Mexico but historical research also concludes that massive volcanic
landslides have occurred several times in the Canary Islands off the western
coast of Africa scientists have warned that similar events may occur in our
future a big landslide in the Canary Islands could generate large tsunami
waves both at close and great distances with the potential to inundate large
coastal areas as far away as the eastern seaboard of North America back in the
year 1755 a great earthquake believed to be in the range of eight point five
shook Portugal’s capital Lisbon not only did it lead the city in runes but it
generated a tsunami forty feet in height that surged of the tagus estuary nearly
an hour after the quake which was then followed by two more waves in Portugal’s
coastal city of Lagos the tsunami reached a height of nearly 100 feet and
severely damaged ports in both Spain and Morocco eventually the tsunami wave made
its way into the English Channel and then across the Atlantic Rock Falls and avalanches along coastal
inlets also have the potential to create regional tsunamis that pose a threat to
coastal ecosystems and to populated regions on July the 9th of the year 1958
a magnitude seven point nine earthquake located on the Fairweather fault
triggered a rock avalanche at the head point of Lituya Bay Alaska the landslide
created a monster wave that ran up more than 1,700 feet on the opposite end of
the bay and then sent an unprecedented 100-foot wall of water across Lituya Bay
this simulation of the Lituya Bay event may provide a better understanding of
the magnitude of the mega tsunami that was generated by the Alaska earthquake
of 1958 if you reside along the US Gulf Coast
region or along the eastern seaboard the prospect of sinking land and rising seas
are not your only concerns the threat of a tsunami has now joined the list of
real threats for coastal residents in perilous times we must do what we can to
protect ourselves our families and our loved ones we do this through careful
watch of any dangers or difficulties that may arise unexpectedly or with very
little warning by being vigilant we find it easier to establish a barrier that
keeps us at a safe distance from harm’s way
make it your practice to do all that you can to stay healthy and safe so that
together we may continue our journey on this planet thanks for watching

Top 10 Superpowers Human Beings May Actually Have — TopTenzNet


10 Superpowers Human Beings May Actually Have 10. Supertaster This superpower should be pretty self-explanatory:
it’s a heightened sense of taste. The reason some people taste flavors stronger is simply
because they have more taste buds. These extra taste buds make them sensitive to flavor,
and as a result, they have strong likes or dislikes for certain foods like broccoli,
cabbage, spinach, coffee, and grapefruit. About 25 percent of people in the world are
supertasters, while 50 percent are medium tasters and at the complete opposite end of
the spectrum are non-tasters, who think everything tastes a little bland, and who make up 25
percent of the population. Women are more likely to be supertasters and people from
Asia, Africa, and South America also have a higher chance of being supertasters. You can test to see if you’re a supertaster
by placing a drop of blue food coloring on the tip of your tongue. Rinse your mouth out
and make sure it’s dry. Then, place a wax ring or binder enforcer ring on the blue dot
and count how many papillae, which are the bumps on your tongue, are inside the ring.
If you have more than 30, then you are probably a supertaster. 9. Golden Blood Nicknamed the “Golden Blood”, Rh-null
is one of the rarest and most precious blood types on earth. It is so rare that in 50 years,
only 43 people have been found to have this blood type. How blood types work is that on every red
blood cell, there are up to 342 antigens, which are molecules that are capable of triggering
the production of antibodies. How people’s blood types are determined is through the
absences and presences of those antigens. Then, there are 35 different types of blood
systems, and a majority of those blood systems encompass the 342 antigens. For example, ABO
is the most common blood system and it’s where you find the most common blood types
like A+, B-, O+, and so on. Rh is a different system from ABO and almost all Rh blood types
are made up from 61 antigens. How Rh-null is different from other Rh blood types is
that Rh-null does not contain any of the 61 antigens, which, until 50 years ago, scientists
thought was impossible. Before the blood type was discovered in a living person in the early
1960s, fetuses with the blood type were aborted because doctors did not think the baby would
survive. Now that they have realized that people can
live with that blood type, it has become incredibly valuable for a number of reasons. First is
that since it’s a negative blood type, it’s a universal donor for all people with Rh blood.
But the blood is only used for transfusions in emergencies because the blood is so rare
and incredibly valuable to scientists and researchers, so they are reluctant to give
it up. In fact, currently there are only nine active Rh-null donors in the whole world.
Some researchers have even gone so far as to track down donors and personally approach
them, asking for some of their blood. 8. Super Vision Tetrachromacy is an incredibly rare variation
in a gene that allows women to see colors that are invisible to most people. How most
people see color is that light enters the eye and goes through three cones. Some animals,
like certain birds, reptiles, insects, and fish, have four cones and that fourth one
extends the color perception into the UV range. Over time, mammals have evolved away from
using this fourth cone, but a very small group of people apparently has a genetic variation
where they utilize that fourth cone. The reason only women can have Tetrachromacy
is because, in order to have it, someone needs two gene variations and the variation only
appears on the X-chromosome. Since males have an XY-chromosome set, it is impossible for
them to have two gene variations. On the flip side of it, this is why many males do not
see colors the same way as women and why men are more likely to be colorblind. As for how much it affects someone’s vision,
if you look at the picture above, it was painted by a woman who has Tetrachromacy and it should
give you some idea as to how she sees the world compared to the way nearly everybody
else does. 7. Rubber Skin and Joints Ehlers Danlos syndrome is actually a group
of disorders that are inherited. The syndrome causes people to have rapid growth spurts,
and they can continue to grow into adulthood. It also gives them stretchy skin and incredible
flexibility, especially in smaller joints. The reason they are more flexible is because
the connective tissue is looser and they can dislocate bones near painlessly. While being more flexible and having rubbery
skin may sound like a good thing, there are a lot of downsides to the syndrome. If they
get cut and need stitches, the stitches may not hold because of the elasticity of the
skin leaving them with horrible scars. Also, since the joints never really settle, it can
lead to early onset arthritis. Not to mention awful growing pains from rapid growth spurts. One fan theory believes that there actually
is a comic book character that has Ehlers Danlos syndrome and that is Batman’s arch
nemesis, the Joker. 6. Echolocation This ability, which, of course, is the same
one that Daredevil uses, is utilized by a number of blind and visually impaired people
to help them “see” the world. What is interesting about this one is that it is not
an innate power, but some people have the ability to learn how to do it. Commonly, people use echolocation by clicking
their tongues and through training, they can pick up subtle audio clues of where objects
are. So while they don’t visualize the world quite the way that Daredevil does, some people
are so good at it that they can tell what objects their sound is bouncing off of. ADVERTISEMENT
Some notable cases include Daniel Kish, who was blind since he was a baby. He can ride
a bike, climb mountains, and live in the wilderness alone, all because of his echolocation skills.
Or there is Ben Underwood, who had his eyes removed due to cancer when he was three. He
learned how to do all the things normal teenagers do like play video games, foosball, basketball,
football and he was fearless on his rollerblades. Sadly, Ben passed away from the same cancer
that claimed his eyes on January 19, 2009 at the age of 16. 5. Never Age Staying young for your entire life may seem
like one of the better superpowers, especially if you compare it with the ailments of growing
old. In reality though, the mysterious syndrome, known as Syndrome X, is actually more of a
curse than a superpower. That is because the aging process doesn’t stop when you’re
in your prime, like your 20s. Instead, some people stay children for their whole life,
like Brooke Greenberg, who was the size and had the mental capacity of a toddler for her
entire 20-year life. Or there is Gabby Williams of Billings, Montana who is 10, but still
looks and acts like a toddler. Finally, there is Nicky Freeman, who lives in Australia.
He grows one year every four years, meaning that while he is 45 now, he is trapped in
the body of an 11-year-old. While this syndrome has to be an incredible
hardship on the families of the inflicted, these people may help unlock the solution
to stopping the aging process once people get into adulthood. And unlocking this secret
may not guarantee we would live forever, it will at least give us the option of living
for a long time and still leaving a beautiful corpse behind. 4. Immunity to Pain A big benefit when it comes to fighting crime
is not being able to feel pain. After all, that is the power that Kick-Ass utilizes to
fight crime. While he had nerve damage, there is an actual syndrome where people don’t
feel pain called Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis (CIPA). The rare genetic
condition affects the development of small nerve fibers that send sensations of pain
and hot and cold to the brain. Meaning in addition to not feeling pain, they also aren’t
affected by extreme heat or coldness. While not being able to feel pain sounds like
a good thing, it is actually a pretty dangerous syndrome. Just because someone doesn’t feel
pain, it doesn’t mean they are immune to injuries. For example, when babies with the
syndrome are teething, they can chew until their gums bleed and when their teeth come
in, they can bite through their tongue and not notice. As they get older, they can easily
burn or cut themselves and not realize they did it and this can lead to infections. Meaning that while they feel less pain, they
actually have to be more careful because they could seriously injure themselves and not
realize that anything is wrong. 3. Unbreakable Bones Thanks to a very rare genetic mutation called
LRP5, a small group of people have nearly unbreakable bones due to an incredibly high
bone density. This oddity was first noted in 1994, after an unnamed man was involved
in a bad car accident. He was uninjured, but just to be safe, they X-rayed him and found
out that his bone density was eight times higher than the average man of the same age.
Sometime later, doctors came across a family and each family member had a very high bone
density, along with very square jaws and they sank when they tried to swim. After finding
the family, doctors traced their family’s lineage and they were able to link the family
to the man in the car accident. Then they found other people from the family tree with
the same mutation, like a man living in Alabama who had problems getting a hip replacement
because his bones were too dense to put screws into the bone. To movie fans, this condition may sound familiar
because it appears to be the same condition that Bruce Willis’ character had in M. Night
Shyamalan’s Unbreakable. 2. Super Strength Myostatin-Related Muscle Hypertrophy is an
incredibly rare condition and there are only a few documented cases, but it is essentially
super strength. How it works is there is a protein in the body called myostatin and it
affects muscle growth. If the body produces a lot of myostatin, then it is harder for
the body to grow muscle, where if someone has low myostatin, then they can develop muscles
easier and they are less likely to retain fat. Currently, there are two known cases in the
world. One is Liam Hoekstra, who lives in Grand Rapids, Michigan. By the time he was
five months old, he was able to do the iron cross, which is a weight lifting exercise.
When he was 8 months old, he could do pull ups and by the time he was 19 months, he could
hang upside down by his feet and do inverted crunches. The other certified case is an unnamed
German boy who is apparently even stronger than Liam. 1. Immunity to Disease Did you know there are some people who are
immune to deadly diseases? It’s true and it is all thanks to them being mutants. Just
to name a few, there are people who have a rare genetic mutation that keeps them immune
from HIV. Another example is that a small group of Amish people have an ultra-low chance
of getting heart disease. Or there is the case of the people of Quito, Ecuador. In the
town, there is a cluster of people with a unique type of dwarfism that also keeps them
immune from cancer. This is actually one of the more interesting
superpowers because if you have it, then you may be responsible for literally saving countless
peoples’ lives. The Resilience Project is looking for people who should have gotten
sick, but didn’t, to donate DNA. The donors will be anonymously scanned for the 685 genes
that cause 127 different diseases. They believe that these people may hold the clues to better
treatment and quite possibly curing mankind’s deadliest inflictions.

Is the CASTLE from NARNIA’s Prince Caspian realistic?


But they may take our lives. But they’ll never…take our MACHICOLATIONS! Ahem. The Machicolations shirt. Available Through teespring.com. Link in the description. Greetings I’m Shad. And in this video I’m gonna be taking a look at the castle from the Chronicles of Narnia Prince Caspian. Oh sorry. I always think of Snap Jelly* when Prince Caspian comes up. It must be that beautiful hair of his. No, no no no no. This Prince Caspian. Who has hair equally as beautiful. Specifically I’ll be reviewing how good of a castle it really is. Comparing it to proper real historical castles that existed in the medieval period and also just analyzing it according to effective defensible castle design. And Gee…This one is gonna be a lot of fun because. Really. When I think about all the great fantasy castles the Prince Caspian castle, actually, is one of my favorite. But that doesn’t mean it is perfect. In fact, it’s such a good example of a castle to analyze. Because they have done so much right in it. Yet, there is* also a lot of problems. And it’s castle designs like this that create the most discussion in our analysis. So, we shall begin where I always begin in any castle review that I have done. And that is Location. And guys, have a look at the location of this castle. You cannot get a better location. This is just beautiful. Remember the principles. The first option that you want to go for is elevation. We’ve put a castle up high it makes it very difficult for people to be out and employ siege weapons against you. That nullifies siege towers, trebuchets, catapults. It makes it very difficult, if not impossible, for, you know, attackers to do ladder rushes and they force the enemy to approach the castle in only one direction. Because every other approach is completely untenable. Unfeasible. But there is something uniquely interesting about the Prince Caspian castle location. Compared to other castle locations that we have looked at, that have had really good high elevation. One of the fantasy castles that comes to mind, is a castle from Dragon Age: Inquisition. Skyhold. Put up really high this incredible position. But the difference between Skyhold and the Caspian castle is the Caspian castle actually isn’t necessarily on a higher elevation than the access point or the nearby village. It’s on a rock outcrop that sits further away from an edge of a cliff. This actually creates a huge amount of convenience and makes it a far more practical and usable castle. Now, in terms of defense. Like, a castle up high? Awesome. You’ll want to go for it and you would just deal with the impracticality of it being so high up. Classic Example. A historical example that comes to my mind. And I reference these castles in my previous castle review when I looked at Markarth from Skyrim. But specifically, I want to focus in on one of those castles. So I was referring to the Five Sons of Carcassonne. Or they’re also called Cathar castles. We’ll have a look at this specific one and (laughs) Yeah…alright…Let’s go with this pronunciation “Poor-le-rruns?” I’m just gonna call it Pailaurens. All right? Look at its location. This is incredible. But climbing up to the castle would be the biggest turd. Certainly acceptable to get such an impregnable position. This castle is just amazing. But Gee. Getting in and out of that castle? Just for, whatever daily duties, traveling to and from? Oh…Look at the stairwell access way. You literally have to climb a cliff to get to it! The Prince Caspian castle, on the other hand, has as much of a defensive advantage without the inconvenience. It just has this beautiful straight bridge that runs right to the castle. And it establishes the only approach. If you want to assault this castle, the only way you can get to it is from along this bridge. No other access way at all. And realistically, there would be a postin* somewhere. It is referenced in the film that castles had postins*. So, we can assume. Hopefully, it might have it there. So yes. All the advantages of having an incredibly high, unassailable, elevated position, and none of the disadvantages of the people who live in the castle getting to and from it. So, location? 10 out of 10! Perfect! Could not be better, in my opinion. Now, let’s look at some of the layout of this castle. And it’s a bit hard. Because we’re limited to only the angles that the movie shows us. Which is why reviewing our castles from video games works out so much better. But we can get a decent enough idea from these shots. And look at what we…see… here…I see one gatehouse. I see a second gatehouse. And w-what i-i-is? Is this a third gatehouse?! Do we have three gate houses?! On the approach to this castle?! Oh my goodness! It’s like they actually thought about layers of defense! And then, on the approach to this castle you have this big long beautiful bridge that will funnel the enemy into a massive bottleneck if they try and assault it. But after the first, kind of, gatehouse-ish part. There’s a drawbridge! Yes Oh Gee! If you remember my review of Skingrad, there was another castle with kind of a similar approach. A bridge going to it. But there was no drawbridge on it. In fact, I’ve even seen this, kind of, on historical castle. Though it’s hard to confirm. Because the castle was destroyed and so I’m not sure if it added drawbridge originally. But from what remains, it doesn’t look like it has a drawbridge. And this is on my favorite castles I’ve mentioned before. Corfe Castle. Big beautiful bridge running to the mound or elevated position that the castle is on. And I should have mentioned Corfe castle because this is actually a very good historical comparison to a similar kind of location. But there’s still a slight climb after you get through the outer baileys to the main keep. But still, massive benefits from its elevation and not nearly as many inconveniences. with its axis. But when looking at the bridge, I have not been able to find a drawbridge. So this might be one example where a fantasy castle has taken a historical principle or design location and executed it a little bit better than the actual real-life comparison. This is amazing! And the drawbridge actually plays a very pivotal role when the heroes actually try and assault this castle. They’ve got to lower the drawbridge. And we’ll get to how they approach the assault of the castle because, of course, the heroes, they’re forced to think a little bit outside of the box. Because you just can’t do a standard assault to this castle. Now realistically, if the Caspian castle existed in real life, your only option, if you wanted to take the castle. Because assaulting it is like a hundred different types of suicide. You would have to be insane to try and take this castle by force. So really, the only best option you have, would be to starve it out. A long-term siege. And remember, many people who took castles in the past, that is exactly how they did it. Of course, in the movie they are able to employ a tactic that would be impossible in a true medieval setting. And that’s flight. Actually, you know, use griffins and fly heroes over the walls where they sneak in and try and lower the drawbridge and raise the porticullis. Because that is really the only other option when trying to assault a castle with such amazing defense. And that’s the, you know, Trojan Horse and sneak someone in, kind of thing. To open the gates from the inside. And if you can just sneak your, you know, army right in through the front gates without any massive battle on the battlements to get through the walls Well, you’ve avoided the biggest issues in taking the castle. Unfortunately, we can’t give the heroes full credit for their inventive way of trying to circumvent or bypass the castle defenses. Because as good as the Prince Caspian castle has appeared to be so far, it’s actually missing some very crucial elements that, if they were there, I don’t think the heroes would have been able to actually break in. First issue, the outermost gatehouse. Okay? Isn’t really fortified. The only thing on it that we see in the movies, is it has a very flimsy metal grate. Flimsy enough, that a minotaur was able to just bust through it with his head. When in reality, his horns actually would have been caught in between the bars because the horns will have gone through the bars before the actual impact from his skull hit the metal. And then as the doors tried to swing shut, the side mappars* would have been caught on the horns that were protruding through them! Physics! People! I mean… can’t you just think about these things? And from this shot, we actually get the see the outermost gatehouse. And you can see it would be a bit hard pressed to raise a porticullis into it. Which is perhaps why they didn’t put a porticullis on this outer part. But that’s a flaw in design. If they were thinking about this properly and this was, you know, a castle that wanted to complete its design in the most practical and effective way, this outer gatehouse would have a porticullis on it and there would be a second drawbridge on it as well. And it would be built large enough to have the porticullis being raised into it. If these heroes had to deal with a second drawbridge and a second porticullis, I’m not sure they would have been able to raise them. And if the guards were, you know, not absolute morons. That are so easy to…like…look. Slight tap on the back of the head they get knocked out. These guards are like lemmings. One flick and they die. But if they had proper guards and, you know, there were actual guards on the outermost gatehouse, I think they would have noticed their porticullis being raised and the drawbridge being lowered. And it would have made sure that no one would have snuck in and been able to do the same thing to their gatehouse. And of course having a proper gatehouse means that minotaur wouldn’t have been able to bust through with his charge. And if you’re interested in my own personal analysis of minotaurs in combat and the usefulness of charges. I’ve actually made two whole videos on the best medieval weapons for minotaurs. If you’re interested. The next thing, it does not seem like any of these gatehouses have secondary porticullis, an entry porticullis, an exit porticullis with no kind of kill-zone in between where you could employ arrow loops on the sides or murder holes up above. So as great as the Caspian castle is, we have already run into, in my mind, a fairly significant problem in its design. Well, it’s funny. What the castle has, actually is very adequate. Okay? It’s just the fact that they have a third outermost gatehouse not really fulfilling the function of what a gatehouse is supposed to do. It just has this flimsy metal grate on it. It’s like, why else is it there? You know? So, if you’re gonna put a gatehouse, put a proper gatehouse on it! That’s what I’m saying. So that’s the big flaw. So now we come to the main part of the assault in the movie. Which is mostly conducted within the primary bailey of the castle. You see, when assaulting the castle, the main parts that you want to get your soldiers onto is not actually the bailey. The baileys are always made to be somewhat kill-zones. Not always. But it’s an area where you have walls surrounding you on every single side with potentially soldiers and archers. Which you do, kind of, see in the movie. So, instead of getting your soldiers into the bailey, you actually want to get your soldiers on the ramparts and battlements. That’s their parts of the castle you want to take. But, I mean yet, take what you can. If you can’t get the walls? Okay? Taking the bailey? That’s at least one step forward in taking the castle. But what’s interesting about this situation in the assault of the Caspian castle, is that the heroes take the bailey and there are walkways surrounding this bailey on all sides. In fact, in some instances, there is more than one walkway as they’re kind of layered up. Which really would have been the best option for the defenders here. Instead of sending down men into a big melee in the bailey. Just use your archers. Don’t send your men down! Archers! It’s a kill-zone! Just destroy everyone! Because it doesn’t seem like the attackers here have any archers to try and fire back. So it would appear they would’ve been wiped out. End of the fight right here. And of course, ultimately, they’re pressed into a retreat. But the captain is actually reluctant to fire down on the people in the bailey because his men are there fighting the other people. “Give the order.” “My men are still down there.” So, of course, you know it would have been better to not have sent your men down there in the first place. But because the bailey does ultimately function as a kill-zone. Just not a perfectly effective kill-zone, in my opinion. Because there just seems to be way too much easy access to these internal ramparts and walkways that surround it. The people attacking the castle are getting there far too easily and they end up fighting on the walkways. So yes. This part could have been done better. Now, let’s look at some of the design elements of the crenellations, the towers…And the layout doesn’t really need to be spoken of too much because it’s just that. It has got towers. It has got a keep. And yes, in reality, the towers facing the sides and backs of the castle aren’t really serving much of a functional purpose. Because honestly, who can assault the castle from that direction? So there’s not really much need to have them there. But it looks cool. And maybe, you know, they actually built them to have the rooms of these towers. And then they just put the battlements on top for the sake of having the battlements there. Now, what I like about the apparent design of, say the crenellations, is that they look very very authentic. I actually think some of their turret designs, I can recognize these turret designs from historical castles. But unfortunately, the one I’m thinking of, I can’t remember the specific one. Maybe I can find it if I scour through my references. But this has been taken from a historical source. Which means they have been looking to historical castles for inspiration in their design. Which I love. We can see here that the size of the crenellations, specifically the Merlons, are almost coming up to the shoulder here. Which, honestly, is good enough. Because on the angle, because the attackers have to shoot up to any of the defenders. And by virtue of that angle, they wouldn’t actually be able to hit anyone standing behind this merlon. And oddly, they have a kind of step up in front of the merlon. And I can make a concession here. I could say, all right, if you have so many defenders that there’s not enough crenels for the defenders to fire in between. There might be some circumstances where you’d want the defenders who do not have access to the crenels to actually step over and shoot over a merlon. And so, in that sense, I could see some functional reason for there to be a step there. And the step does not seem to be too big. In that, anyone standing behind it would have to be on this step to get the cover. They can just step a little bit behind it. Because the step doesn’t look to be big and still receive full cover from anyone attacking. So I give a thumbs up to the design of these crenellations. But this design is not the same on all the crenellations on the castle. In fact, when I look at some of the top of other towers. The crenellations are half as big. Like, in terms of height. This is bizarre. Why on Earth did they do that? Maybe, I don’t know, because they don’t actually have any shots in the movie of people standing there. But we can see them! Alright? And so there are crenellations on other parts of the towers of this castle. And they are not big enough! And that is not good enough! And I’ve said enough on the crenellations. Because I just want to say “enough” again. I can be a bit of a “nuffy”. (laughs) What we also see. And this is where we come to a massive fail in this castle. So they did so much right yet there is a big issue here. And like, the problem that I see here. I think, if you’re familiar with my content, you’ll know this is the one that gets my goat. We see corbelling. So the top of these towers, their battlement has been extended off the rampart a little bit. Which if you know, this is to provide provision for (whisper) machicolations I did that for you headphone users there. So, the machicolations. There is complete provision for them. But there’s actually no machicolations. Okay? We can see from the upwards angles from this shot here. There is no hole or area to be able to fight through, down from behind, their battlements. Which means the machicolations are completely aesthetic. They’re fake! They’re not real! There’s no real proper machicolations on this castle! My goodness, would they be useful on the three gate houses that they have on this castle. Having some, you know, battlements, crenellations above the gates, and with machicolations there as well. It can, kind of, give you some murder hole functionality. Because there doesn’t seem to be murder holes in the gate houses themselves. So, while they’re trying to break down the gates, you can shoot through the machicolations and be perfectly safe. But they’re not there! They don’t have them! Such a disappointment…So it’s hard for me to speak on the other elements of the castle because we’re just not given enough detail. I mean, we are shown some shots of certain windows. And it does look like the windows are built into alcoves. Which would say the walls of this castle are properly thick. But having said that. The the main parts of the walls that you will need to fortify are the parts of the walls that are facing the bridge. At the main access point. Because good luck reaching any of the walls with trebuchets from any other angle. It’s also clear that they’ve incorporated a certain gothic kind of design elements. Especially in the windows. There are a gothic cathedral kind of windows. Which is perfectly fine. Especially for a fantasy castle. They look great. They could be made with the technology. And it’s not a detrimental feature in its defenses because these windows are clearly positioned on parts of the castle where bombardment would not be able to reach at all. And there we go. This has been my review on the Caspian castle. And gee…it’s such a really great castle. But yet there are some design elements that are just ridiculous and I’ve no idea why they’d put them there. Because like, say the crenellations, you know. Properly sized crenellations. And then ones that aren’t big enough. And they did it right in one area. So, why didn’t you do it right? You knew how. But they didn’t do it right on all the parts of the castle. Very confusing. All the machicolations are completely fake. And then, you know, some of the gatehouses weren’t as fortified nearly as much as they could have been. So there’s flaws! Unacceptable flaws on this castle that could have been avoided. But still, there’s a lot to love about it. And I hope you’ve enjoyed guys. Thank you for watching. And until next time…farewell

VA Individual Unemployability (TDIU) Myths and Facts


Linden Nash: Hi, everyone. Welcome to another
edition of Facebook live from Chisholm Chisholm & Kilpatrick. My name is Linden Nash and I
am an attorney with the firm. Joining me today is Nicholas Briggs who is an accredited claims
agent– also with the firm, and Alyse Galoski, another attorney here at CCK. Today, we are
going to be talking about the most common myths and facts surrounding TDIU or otherwise
known as Individual Unemployability. This is a really important topic because it is
something that our clients seek really often because it has the similar or the same monthly
compensation as a 100% ratings, so it’s about $3000 a month. It stands for the fact that
your service-connected conditions do not allow you to work. We will get into more details
about TDIU as we progress but please keep in mind that we are filming this during the
Covid-19 situation in our country and around the world. CCK is working almost entirely
remotely, which has been a really unique experience, but we’re here for you and we are available
should you need anything. Hopefully we don’t have any technical difficulties, but we did
ask you earlier in the week for any questions that you might have for this broadcast. If
we don’t address your question, please check out our website, cck-law.com, we have a lot
of really greats blogs with awesome information. You can also look at our YouTube channel or
our Facebook page for other videos that address a whole wide array of topics, so hopefully
you’ll find your answer there. Again, we are talking today about TDIU myths and facts and
so as I said before, TDIU stands for the fact that you’re unable to work due to your service-connected
conditions. I think with all of that said, we can hop into our first myth or fact. Let’s
see, Alyse, our first statement– and while you let me know if this is a myth or a fact.
The statement is, “If I don’t meet VA’s TDIU rating percentage requirements, then I do
not qualify for unemployability.” Is that true or false? Alyse Galoski: That is going to be a myth.
There’s two different ways that you can get TDIU, they are under section 4.16(a) or 4.16(b).
4.16(a) is that schedular TDIU. That’s what we more traditionally think of when we think
of TDIU, and that’s those rating requirements that you mentioned. More specifically, you
can become eligible for TDIU if you have one service-connected disability rated at 60%
or more, or if you have more than one service-connected disability with one rated at at least 40%
and the combined rating being at least 70%. That’s the schedular way, but you don’t have
to have those ratings to be eligible for TDIU. The alternative way is under 4.16(b), which
is also known as an extra-schedular TDIU. Basically, that means you have such an exceptional
disability picture that even though you’re not meeting those schedular criteria, you
still are unable to complete substantially gainful employment and you’re still eligible
for TDIU that way. An example might be, if you are particularly disabled from just one
disability for example maybe you have a 40% rating for your back, which is a pretty significant
rating for a back condition, or maybe a 50% PTSD, again, a pretty significant rating,
but it’s not going to meet that schedular TDIU. Still, it could render you unable to
complete substantially gainful employment so you’ll still be eligible under 4.16(b). Linden: Okay, great. That first statement
was a myth. You do not– just because you don’t have the certain percentage requirements
to hit the schedular requirements for TDIU or what would be listed under 4.16(a), you
can still be found entitled to TDIU based on 4.16(b), otherwise known as the extra-schedular
TDIU. Alyse: Correct. Linden. Okay, great. Then do you have any
advice or pieces of evidence that you suggest one would submit to the VA in order to get
TDIU granted under b or even under a? Alyse: Yeah, absolutely. One example would
be if you have a social security determination, if you are deemed disabled by the Social Security
Administration. Another, you could have medical records, any lay evidence letters from yourself
or people who are close to you that know you, that have observed your disability, maybe
former employers, co-workers, anybody, again, who is witnessing your disability and how
it impacts your ability to work. You could also have a vocational assessment, it could
be from the VA or it could be your own counselor who has worked with you. That’s all evidence
that could go towards that. Linden: Awesome. Okay, great. Thank you very
much. Now, let’s move on to our next myth or fact. Nick, why don’t you let me know if
this is true or false. Veterans can collect Social Security Disability and TDIU benefits
at the same time. True or false? Nicholas Briggs: This one is true. It is a
fact. There are certain government benefits that there are double-dipping rules form,
meaning you can’t get both programs at the same time, but SSDI and VA Disability benefits
don’t count as double-dipping. There is sampling called Supplemental Security Income, where
you receive benefits that are needs-based, meaning that because you don’t receive a certain
amount of money, you are entitled to that amount of need-based aid, but once you receive
a certain amount of income from other sources such as VA benefits, then there would be double-dipping
rules that prevent you from getting both. But with SSDI, it only counts earned income,
meaning that you can get both SSDI and VA benefits at the same time. Linden: Great. I feel like this comes up a
lot. I’m always surprised how frequently I’m asked this question by our clients so I think
this is a common myth or facts, depending on how you look at it, but yes. Just so everyone
is clear, you are allowed to collect Social Security Disability and TDIU benefits at the
same. Just because you have Social Security does not mean you are not allowed, or not
able to get TDIU.� Nick: Absolutely. Linden: So I’m glad we were able to clear
that one out. All right. That one is pretty open and shut so why don’t we move on to the
next True or False, Fact or Myth. Alyse, if Social Security Administration deems you totally
disabled then you automatically get TDIU benefits from the VA. Is that true or false? Alyse: That is going to be another myth. SSA
and TDIU are two– they’re coming from two different administrations. Just as Nick just
said, they have two different purposes. They have two different definitions of what renders
somebody totally disabled. In our world, somebody is eligible for TDIU if they’re unable to
complete substantially gainful employment. The decisions are not binding on each other,
but like we had just mentioned, it can still be helpful if you’re deemed disabled to show
that because it’s persuasive evidence even if they’re not binding. It’s a myth that you’re
automatically entitled to TDIU if you’re deemed disabled by the Social Security Administration,
but it definitely is something that’s in your favor. Linden: Great. So yeah, if you do– like Alyse
just said, if you happen to have documentation from Social Security that deems you disabled,
that can certainly be helpful towards your TDIU claim and for getting TDIU granted, but
unfortunately, it’s not an automatic grant. It’s not as though you can just submit that
to the VA and automatically get a 100% for TDIU evaluation. That is really good to know,
and good to keep in mind. Also, Nick and Alyse, if you guys have anything to say while we’re
going through this– just because it’s not your myth or fact, feel free to jump in. Nick: Sounds good. Linden: Okay, great. All right. Again, that
one was pretty clear as well. All right, let’s move on to number four. Nick, VA can deny
unemployability benefits due to my being over the retirement age. Is that a myth or a fact? Nick: This one’s a myth. The only thing that
VA can consider age for is non-service connected pension through service-connected benefits
for unemployability. They’re not allowed to consider age as a factor. It’s something that
case law or supposed to leave out of their consideration entirely. That’s not to say
that they don’t do it sometimes, but whenever possible, you should make sure to point that
error out to VA because it’s something that we often see but it’s definitely not something
they’re allowed to rely upon. Linden. Okay, great. Just because– maybe
you retired a couple years ago, and you’re 75, that doesn’t mean that they can take that
into account in deciding whether TDIU is applicable on your case. Nick: Exactly. It’s important to mention,
though, that it’s a two-way street, meaning that in the same way they can’t use it to
deny you, the mere fact that a veteran might be 75 years old isn’t in and of itself a reason
that VA can grant unemployability. It’s something that is limited just to the consideration
of whether or not the service-connected disabilities prevent them from engaging in substantially
gainful employment. Linden: That’s a really great point. Age cannot
help you, or hurt you, necessarily. Nick: Exactly. Linden: Depending on how you look at it. Okay,
well that is really good to know, and good to keep in mind. Again, I think that is pretty
straightforward, as well. Okay, on to our next myth or fact. Alyse, VA can reduce or
terminate unemployability benefits. Is this true or false? Alyse: That is unfortunately true. TDIU is
not a guaranteed benefit unless VA has determined that you have a condition that won’t improve,
and that is something that you get when it’s considered permanent and total. TDIU can become
permanent and total but it’s not automatically permanent and total. Basically, what that
means is you have a condition that is what it sounds like. It’s permanent. There is a
reasonable certainty that it won’t get any better and you’re also rated totally disabled.
You can tell if you are P and T, which is important to do to see if your TDIU is considered
permanent and total. Basically, if you– there are certain ways. You might be told that you
are eligible for a DA benefits, you might have– Sometimes there’s a little box that
team and check that says your 100% disability is permanent. Sometimes, in rating decisions,
you’ll also see a notation that ‘No further examinations are scheduled. That’s also an
indication that your disability has been determined to be permanent, but unless those things are
true, you’re not considered permanent, and if you go back to work, your TDIU will no
longer be a benefit that you’ll receive. Linden: Great. Yeah, so as Alyse went over,
TDIU is unfortunately not something that– Just because you’ve had it for 10 years doesn’t
mean it can never be taken away. VA does check up on things sometimes, so if they’ve granted
you TDIU based on your inability to work, and then five years from now, you start working
full time and you maintain that position for over a year, unfortunately, TDIU can be taken
away. Please just keep that in mind. As Alyse said, probably the easiest way to know if
you are permanent and total, is if you’ve been granted DEA benefits, so dependent’s
adhesion assistance under chapter 35. That will be usually pretty clear in your rating
decision that you have that. For me, that’s the quickest way to tell, and if you’d like
to be rated P and T, you can always specifically ask to be rated for that, as well, just to
be really clear. Let’s see. Nick, am I missing anything? Nick: Nope, that’s exactly right. We’ll get
into it a bit later, but obviously there might be situations where a veteran can still work
and maintain their TDIU rating, but that really comes down to the specific type of employment
and how much they’re making. Like I said, we’ll talk about that in just a second. Linden: All right. Alyse: Yeah, and working is not the only way
that they might reduce your benefits. If you’re not P and T, you are required to continue
to submit those 21-4140 forms annually. If you don’t submit these forms, they can take
your benefits away. It could result in either termination or reduction. And other example
might be that if your service connections conditions have actually improved. Maybe you’re
not working but there are some evidence out there that shows your situation has improved,
that’s another way you could receive some kind of reduction. Linden: Okay. All right, great. Thank you,
both. Let’s move on to our next one. Okay. I cannot work at all while receiving TDIU
benefits– Nick, I think you eluded to this previously, but is that true or false, fact
or myth? Nick. Yup. This one is false. It is a myth.
There are certain circumstances in which a veteran can continue to work and still be
granted entitlement to TDIU. First, if a veteran is working in a marginal capacity, meaning
that they’re employment is considered marginal because they make less than the federally
established poverty threshold, which is a little over $13,000 a year nowadays. If a
veteran works part-time or full-time, but makes less that $13,000 amount, their employment
can be considered gainful, and as a result, they can still be granted TDIU if it’s determined
that they’re limited to no more than marginal employment due to their service-connected
conditions. However, there are also additional circumstances where if the veteran makes more
than the poverty thresholds, they might still be considered unable to work if their employment’s
only maintained because it’s what called the protected work environment. The regulation
doesn’t really define what a protected work environment is, it just gives examples like
a family business or a sheltered workshop, but at the most basic level, it’s basically
a situation where a veteran’s excused from the critical functions of their job. They
are less productive than other employees, they are less reliable, and they might not
be penalized for a certain behavioral issues or mistakes, that might get a traditional
employee fired. And as results, the veteran might still be paid the same, or a similar
amount, as other employees despite this protections. That’s basically a recognition on the employer’s
part that– but for those accommodations, the veteran would not be able to work. In
those situations, VA should still be granting the veteran entitled to TDIU. Linden: Right. Okay. As Nick just said, there
are certain ways where you can work, very certain specific situations where you are
able to work and still receive TDIU benefits, marginal employments, so you make under the
poverty thresholds, or you’re in– as Nick’s just described, a protected work environment,
meaning that maybe you work in a family business, or something similar, where you are given
unreasonable accommodations in order to complete your job everyday. Maybe you are paid an average
salary of someone in that position, but you don’t really fulfill all of the roles or task
that someone else in that position might be required to fill. Okay. That is well said.
Alyse, are we missing anything? Alyse: I don’t think so. I think Nick hit
all the points there. Linden: All right. Just to be clear, you–
very certain, tiny circumstances you can work while receiving TDIU, but it is– Typically,
if you are getting TDIU, it means you’re unable to work due to your service-connected conditions.
All right. Alyse, let’s move on to the next one. Veterans in receipt of TDIU have a 100%
VA disability rating. Is that true or false? Alyse: It is actually a myth. You’re rated–
You do not have a 100% disability schedular rating. You’ll receive the same amount of
benefits that somebody would if they had a 100% schedular rating, but you technically
do not have a 100% schedular rating. That matters in certain aspects. Some States, for
example, might give certain benefits to people who have schedular 100% ratings. In most avenues,
it might not matter as much, but it’s technically– there is a difference there. You have TDIU
and you are being paid out at 100%, but you do not have a 100% rating.� Linden: Okay, great. Nick, anything on top
of that? Nick: That’s it. Linden: Okay, so yeah, pretty straightforward.
As Alyse said, you are paid the same amount, so TDIU monthly compensation and a 100% schedular
rating are paid the same amount every month, which is just over $3,000, I believe. They
are similar, but they are not the same. However, we have clients all the time who ask us or
ask VA for a letter stating their rating, or stating that they’re totally disabled.
Sometimes, that can help in certain States for tax purposes or different housing situations,
so if you are looking for a letter like that, you can ask VA for– I forgot what they call
the letter, but something about your benefits– total disability benefits letter. That could
be spelled out for you, if need be, but they are technically, not the same. Just paid the
same. Okay. Our last myth or fact– Nick, how about this one. You must file a separate
claim for TDIU benefits. Is that true or false? Nick: This one’s a myth. As a general rule,
VA is required to assume that a veteran is seeking the highest possible rating for their
conditions, off to and including unemployability benefits and sometimes, even higher benefits.
What than means is, if the veteran is seeking an increased rating for an underlying condition,
and there’s evidence of records suggesting that they can’t work due to that condition,
VA is supposed to consider TDIU as a reasonably-raised issue. That being said, it’s better to help
VA along and do what they ask you to do by submitting the VA form 21-8940 because it
provides lot of information that might not be included in treatment records or in the
letter that a veteran might submit. And at the end of the day, if the veteran doesn’t
have any other claims pending, they can submit the 8940 form to initiate a claim for TDIU,
but that’s not supposed to stop VA from failing to consider it as a part of what’s already
pending. Linden: Okay, great. Technically, you don’t
have to file a claim for TDIU, but as we all know, it’s always helpful to give VA that
nudge and just be really clear with them about what the veteran is asking for, why they’re
asking for it. As you said, Nick, the 8940 is extremely detailed. It ask you for all
of your service-connected conditions that impact your ability to work. It ask you for
your recent work history, when you stopped working, if you’ve been hospitalized or seeking
treatment. It’s really a inclusive form, and it gives VA a really clear idea as to what
you’re going through, so I would definitely suggest filling one out just to be extra clear
that you’re unable to work due to your service-connected conditions and that you’re seeking TDIU. Although
not necessary, it’s definitely encouraged, in my opinion. Nick: Absolutely. Linden: Great. Alyse, anything I’m missing
there with TDIU 8940’s? Alyse: No, I think it just goes to show sometimes
things just aren’t always required but it’s always good to help VA want to help you. Fill
out those forms, fill out the forms that you have to fill out yearly, make sure that you’re
doing everything that you can to keep an up and up with your benefits. Linden: Right. That was actually our last
myth or fact that we’re going to go over, but this kind of goes into my final question
for you, guys. Anything– Any big tips for a veteran who may be seeking entitlement to
TDIU– I know we touched on evidence a little bit, or how to treat your claim, or how to
treat VA in this process. Any kind of last pieces of advice for someone seeking TDIU? Alyse: Nick, do you want to start or I–? Nick: Sure. One of the big things that we
often see is making sure that a veteran submits everything that they need to submit regarding
their employment history. The 8940 form request the last five years that a veteran worked,
but oftentimes, we might see situations where a veteran tried to continue applying for jobs–
or succeeded in getting a job, but lost that job after one or two months. Alyse: Right. Nick: All that information’s both important
for VA to know when exactly a veteran stopped working, but at the same time, it can also
be useful to show the fact that a veteran can’t work and their service-connected conditions
affected those failed to work attempts. It’s all relevant information to include so it’s
better to be over-inclusive in what you submit VA, than have something that they might find
out about in some other circumstances. Linden: Definitely. Alyse: In the same theme of the evidence,
don’t feel like you have to rely too heavily on your medical evidence– what those VA exams
say. Sometimes they don’t have a lot of good facts in to how something might impact your
employability. They might just say, “Oh, well, it impacts his ability or her ability to stand,”
but that’s really not the full picture of it. Lay statements can be very helpful for
you. It doesn’t have to just be something you’re saying, it can be something a co-worker
is saying– your sister or your brother, your loved one. They can help paint the picture
a little bit more realistically than just a couple lines in the examination can, so
don’t shy away from those. Linden: Great advice. Following up on what
both of you just said, VA is a really busy department, they have a lot of claims everyday,
they have a lot of submissions coming in and out from veterans and representatives. They
have a lot going on, so I would just say to be as clear as possible, don’t hide the ball,
be honest, submit lay statements from your friends and family. Like Alyse said, submit
lay statements from yourself, do the 8940 just to be thorough, and really let them know
what you’re asking. Be as clear as you can and don’t assume that they know what’s going
on, and don’t assume that they will grant you the highest benefit even though they’re
supposed to. Definitely ask for TDIU outright if you are unable to work due to your service-connected
conditions. Okay. Anything else from you, guys? Pretty good? ` Nick: Good. Linden: All right. Okay. With that said, thank
you everyone for tuning in today. We hope that you and your families are staying safe
and healthy, and we’re thinking of you during this time. Our office is open if you need
anything. Please don’t hesitate to give us a call. Like I said, we are working remotely
so it might seem like we’re not around, but we are. We’re here for you. Please call us
and let us know what we can do to help you. Keep washing your hands and we will see you
next time. Thanks again.