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A REAL 64 Core CPU – For SCIENCE!

April 8, 2020 | Articles, Blog | 100 Comments

A REAL 64 Core CPU – For SCIENCE!


64 cores 256 threads Running at 1.3 to 1.5 gigahertz with 32 megabytes of cache Meet the Knights’ landing XeonPhi one of the most insane CPUs in the world How insane?! (Pretty insane) Well, how does a theoritical 2.5 Teraflops sound? Got no context for that? Don’t stress! It’s like it’s like a lot like like like look how big this thing is. I could take over the world with this sort of power But first I need to pay the bills Which is why today’s video is brought to you by Tunnelbear, where makes it easy to privately and securely browse a more open Internet. Try TunnelBear for free a tunnelbear.com/LTT [INTRO] So some background information is in order here as this is no ordinary CPU. Knights’ Landing is the current generation of Xeon Phi Intel’s version of what’s referred to as a mini core processor Which is exactly what it sounds like. It’s built around the idea of trading off per thread performance for an obscene number of threads and maximum throughput. With the theory being that a simpler, scaled-down core design can dramatically scale up in number while still utilizing existing tools So we can actually trace Knights’ landings lineage back to Project Larrabee first unveiled in mid 2008 as a GPU designed around the x86 architecture. Intel even announced their intent to release a consumer graphics card version of it back in 2010 But since nobody is talking about dedicated team blue graphics cards today You should probably realize that that never launched. So Xeon Phi is what rose from the ashes of that project first appearing in 2012 as a PCI Express add-in card codenamed “Knights’ corner”. And it actually did end up getting used in, what was the world’s fastest supercomputer until June 2016. The newest revision though Knights’ Landing looks a little different. It launched last year unlike Knights corner it works exclusively in the LGA 3647 socket that high-end Xeon Perley CPUs also slot into. So adding support for AVX 512 and its many extensions gives Knights’ landing a lot of flexibility in its target market so then Who’s the target market? I’m glad you asked. Uses for this include Protein Folding Simulation, Weather Prediction, AI and Neural Network Research Developments and molecular simulation with libraries like TensorFlow and NAMD being able to take advantage of it as well as GPU Acceleration. “Okay then, Linus, so why do you have one?” I guess because Super Micro pulled a rookie mistake and sent it to me I mean obviously all I was gonna do was game on it And I’m actually kidding about that At 1.3 gigahertz I can tell you guys right now without firing up a single benchmark what the gaming performance will look like like that as as for productivity though yeah, right out of the gate. It fell flat on its face coming in at under half of CORE i9 and nearly a third of Threadripper’s score in 7-zip and and Cinebench, CPUMark and RealBench not looking much better. Even Blender conventionally multi-core friendly benchmark sees terrible performance given the $1.900 price tag for the chip alone So know these results won’t do it all Xeon Phi is clearly unlike anything. We’ve ever tried to benchmark before you’d need like a PhD or something to properly evaluate this thing Which is where Dr. Kinghorn, our friend over at Puget systems comes in. As a chemist and mathematician Dr. Kinghorn is no stranger to high-level computation like this and agreed to remote into our Knights’ landing workstation and do some of the testing for us while also running his own 14 core Xeon 2690 v4 workstation through the same suite to give us a point of comparison. The results actually pretty surprising in LINPACK, the higher core clock of the traditional Xeon gives it an edge in Smaller problem sizes, but beyond 5,000 the tables turn dramatically With the molecular dynamics library NAMD things seem to scale predictably with the number of atoms being simulated and all the tests wind up being far less favorable to the 0 and 5 the greatest gains in this benchmark actually come from dedicated compute GPUs. Though, that is fine for the Xeon Phi these days since it sits in a socket instead of taking up valuable PCIe slots TensorFlow neural networks bring things back though into the Xeon Phi’s wheelhouse, especially in batch sizes larger than 64 So Xeon Phi takes a significant lead over its traditional Xeon cousin But it should be noted that both of them get creamed by a GPU further highlighting the importance of large banks of compute GPUs for tasks like these Though that doesn’t mean that Xeon Phi is useless. It’s dramatically better performance than a standard Xeon makes it great for Supplementing GPU compute in workloads like these. Which brings us neatly to the conclusion then Not quite as good as a GPU for tasks that can be accelerated far better than a traditional Xeon though in most and Aaaaand… finally utterly worthless for just about anything on the Windows desktop I was actually surprised to see Windows. Even installed we ended up needing a server version of Windows to see all the course But that is sort of irrelevant anyway, because this is intended for use in supercomputers, we’re like MAAASSIVE nodes of these things can all work together to solve complex problems along with the banks of GPUs that accompany of them. I mean you’re almost Certainly not gonna be buying anything like this personally any time soon, unless you’re like that you like to science for funsies With that said though you yes, you are very likely to benefit from the work being done using hardware like this and We’re glad we got the opportunity to play with it, it was fun Speaking of things that are fun It’s fun to tell you guys about Squarespace and thank them for sponsoring this video Squarespace has 24/7 support via live chat, so anyone can create a beautiful, functional website in just a few minutes if all you want is like a one-page online presence That’s their cover pages feature. And they’ve got tons of other great features as well including their logo designer The ability to publish in the Apple News format and not to mention that the whole creation tool is cloud-based So it’s always up you can access it anywhere in updating your site is as simple as like dragging over some pictures Clickety-clacking some text and you are ready to rock Squarespace starts at just 12 bucks a month and you can start a trial with no credit card required By heading to the link in the video description squarespace.com/LLT and when you decide to sign up for Squarespace FOREVER You can use offer code LTT to get 10% off on your first purchase So thanks for watching guys if you dislike this video, you can hit that button But if you liked it hit like, get subscribed maybe consider checking out, where to buy the stuff me featured If you like work at a university or something it’s like. I’ll know that’s what happened if like you know 2,000 Xeon Phi’s show up on like our Amazon report or whatever anyway the point is Also in the description is our merch store as well as our community forum, which you shouldn’t totally join

What’s Quackin’ Daily Quack Fact #6

April 7, 2020 | Articles, Blog | No Comments

What’s Quackin’ Daily Quack Fact #6


What’s Quackin’! It’s your friends at the
University of Illinois Extension 4-H team. Today we’re going to learn a few
more parts of the egg including the vitelline membrane, the shell membrane, and the air cell. If you’ve ever had a hard-boiled egg and you’ve noticed a
film on the outside of the egg whenever you peel it, that is the shell membrane.
The shell membrane keeps bacteria from getting inside of the egg. Another one is
the vitelline membrane which surrounds the yolk. It’s kind of hard to see here
but that’s okay. And then at the fat end of the egg, you’ll see this pocket of air,
which is the air cell and that forms between the membranes at the eggs wider end.
A source of air for the chicks whenever it starts to breathe soon before it
hatches.

Does the Future Exist – Physics Explains!


My brother is a duffer,
He makes his channel suffer, I could get more subscribers,
Only if he’d asked me ever. Subscriber now and join the science fever. Scientify screams What the heck man! Right. Sorry about that. Let’s start over. Hello everyone! Today, we’re going to talk about time…Is
the future predetermined? Does the future even exist? Dude, of course it exists. In the future, you’re going to yell at me. Stop it! See what I meant? Before we get into the topic, let’s define
our terms. The past is the time before the present, while
the future is the time after the present. Now the question arises: Does the future exist? Yes it does. or is the future just a prediction of what
might happen? Going back to the previous example, I could
say that Dumbify gave only one possible outcome. I could have also started dancing to the tune. Hmmmm…let’s use spacetime diagrams to
better understand this situation. Over a period of time in your physical space
you could be sitting stationary drinking tea, moving at a constant pace or moving randomly
to run away from Dumbify. The only constraint is that you can’t go
faster than light. This is how some of those actions look like
on a space time diagram, where the 2 yellow lines represent the constraint that you can’t
go faster than light. This part below your present on the time axis
represents your past; and the one above represents your future. Or to put it crudely, which seems to belittle
your life…these two regions represent your entire life. Now, is your path predetermined or not? This boils down to the simple idea of causality,
which needs to be followed according to Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Causality is fairly simple idea that you use
in everyday life. You get good grades because you study well. Thus, the cause ‘studying’ comes before
the effect ‘good grades’. Let us apply causality to this space time
diagram. If you want to affect me, I can only be in
your future as effect has to follow cause. If I am on the path of light, then since you
can’t move at speed of light, you can affect me only with light. In all these cases, the cause, that’s you,
is before the effect, which is me getting hurt. This is true for all points of view even when
we transform our reference frame to any other person’s frame. See, the cause is still before the effect. But if I’m outside your future light cone,
these distinctions between the past, the present and the future are pointless. However, in another observer’s reference
frame, the cause may be after the effect, as shown by the transformation. You’ve lost it. How can one person’s past be another person’s
future? I just showed how that’s possible! The past and the future make sense only with
respect to an observer, or the observer’s present, which brings in the concept of locality. A physical thing somewhere can only be directly
influenced by its surroundings. And that “somewhere” is called the ‘Local’
for particles, which is really really small — REMEMBER THIS! We can label the space dimensions of “local”
as x, y, z, and the time as t. Remember that x, y, z, and t are infinitesimally
small. Thus, we have local spacetime for you. This is the only thing that actually exists
and can be called predetermined. Because local spacetime is infinitesimally
small, the future and the past do not exist. Thus, the diagram from earlier only showed
predictions about a non existent future and a non existent past. All that matters is your local space and time,
which is attached to you. The future doesn’t exist and so it can’t
be predetermined. Congratulations! Physics can show that you have control over
your life.

The Secret Commonwealth: Real Fairies in History


[Heavy typewriter keystroke, chimes,
typewriter return slide] When we think of fairies today,
we often envision tiny, winged, pixie girls, and few believe that such things exist. But this image is largely a 19th-century
invention, not based on fairy lore: those who actually saw the things typically
described human-looking beings with little resemblance to the way that
they’re portrayed in children’s books. In the late 17th century, a Scottish minister
wrote a manuscript on the “secret commonwealth” of fairies that shared the Earth with humans. His book is a rare example of a formal exposition
on the “invisible people,” as he called them, and offers a more evidence-based
description of their kind. [Typewriter keystrokes, return slide] Robert Kirk was born on December 9th, 1644, the seventh and last son of the Episcopalian
minister of Aberfoyle, Scotland. Like his father, Kirk studied theology, attaining a
masters degree from Edinburgh University in 1661. After graduation, Kirk joined the ministry,
serving first in Balquidder before returning to serve his hometown
parish of Aberfoyle in 1685. He authored and aided in a number
of publications in these years: most notably, by translating the Scottish
Metrical Psalms into Gaelic. In 1689, he went to London to oversee
the printing of the first Gealic Bible in Roman type, and stayed most of a year. Like many of those in Aberfoyle,
Kirk believed in a race of “invisible people,” also referred to as; elves; fauns;
fairies; Sith; sluagh maithe; “aerial people”; and “good people,”
among other names. Kirk also referred to them as the “subterranean”
people, as he believed that they lived underground. The invisible people had their own civilization,
with their own culture, government, and industry. They generally avoided contact with humanity,
however, and were rarely seen or heard from. But while many of the common people
believed that they were real, European intellectuals were becoming
increasingly doubtful of their existence, which could not be squared with the rationalized,
mechanistic philosophy of the late 17th-century. Kirk indicated in a diary entry that he
encountered skepticism of fairies and other anomalous entities
while living in London. Historians have long maintained
that encountering these doubts – especially those of his host and benefactor,
Edward Stillingfleet, the bishop of Worcester – was a big factor in Kirk’s decision to write The Secret Commonwealth of Elves, Fauns, and Fairies: a treatise on the invisible people and
other mysteries of Scottish folklore. In his own words, Kirk’s aim was to “suppress
the impudent and growing atheism of this age” by drawing attention to God’s unacknowledged
creations and miraculous gifts. After returning from London in the
Spring of 1690, Kirk travelled around the Scottish county of Perthshire talking with people
who claimed to have encountered anomalous entities. He also collected evidence of anomalous
experiences more generally, as he believed that the invisible people could be
responsible for a range of unexplained occurrences. Much of the treatise also discusses what
the Scottish called “Second Sight,” a visionary gift thought to be prevalent amongst
the people of the Scottish Lowlands. Those with Second Sight, called “seers,”
were better able to see the invisible people, as well as other apparitions. Some seers were also said to have healed the sick and wounded, and had premonitions of future events. Kirk finished The Secret Commonwealth sometime
in 1691, but he never got the chance to publish it: the following year, he was found dead on the fairy hill
beside his manse, at the relatively young age of 48. There is a gravestone for Kirk in the Aberfoyle Cemetery
that gives his date of passing as May 14th, 1692. However, his cause of death
has never been determined. In 1830 – nearly 140 years after Kirk’s passing –
Walter Scott, a Scottish historian, published in his Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft what he’d
learned from the minister of Aberfoyle at the time: the locals believed that the fairy people had
captured Kirk, either in body or in spirit. They said that his body was never recovered, and
that his coffin was buried empty, or filled with stones. When the anthropologist Walter Evans-Wentz
visited Aberfoyle in the early 20th century, he was told the same story. Those locals still sympathetic to the fairy
faith generally assumed that the good people were unhappy with Kirk for divulging their secrets,
and took his soul to their world forever. The same minister also claimed that an apparition
of Kirk appeared to one of Kirk’s relatives, and exclaimed that he was “captive in Fairyland.” The apparition commanded the relative to
tell Grahame of Duchray, Kirk’s cousin, that Kirk’s apparition would appear
at the baptism of his son, with whom his wife was pregnant
at the time of his death: if his cousin threw a knife
over the apparition’s head, he would scare away the fairy people,
allowing Kirk to return. Allegedly, Kirk’s image did in fact
appear during the ceremony, but the astonished Grahame was
too awestruck to throw a knife. Of course, all of those that shared these
stories with Scott and Evans-Wentz were speaking of events alleged to have
occurred well before they were born. There’s no evidence that
Kirk’s body went missing, and no corroborating record of Kirk’s
ghost appearing anywhere. It’s likely that all of these stories were
simply invented by later generations. [Typewriter keystrokes, return slide] The Secret Commonwealth refers
to the network of invisible people that were alleged to inhabit some
regions of the British Isles. Aside from being mostly
invisible to human eyes, it was well known that these beings avoided
people, so they were rarely seen. Kirk thought of the invisible people as another
species of creation, alongside angels, demons, and the people that many assumed
to be living on the moon at the time. He believed that they were a “middle
nature between Man and Angel” in the spiritual hierarchy of beings. They had light, “changeable” bodies made
of a substance like “congealed” air. Their amorphous forms allowed them to
fit themselves into narrow crevices, and to become invisible to human eyes. Alongside these natural abilities, the invisible
people possessed powerful ointments that allowed them to change forms,
and had fires that could burn forever. Kirk believed that their senses were
specialized in the same way as animals’, and that they could sometimes
“give warnings” of future events. He also believed that they had the
ability to cure their own ailments, and that they lived much
longer than humans. Eventually, however, their bodies perished, and their
spirits remained as orbs until the final judgement. Kirk assumed that the invisible people must
procreate or else they’d be extinct. Their children survived on milk,
like human babies, and the adults ate human foods
like grains, and drank liquor. However, they could also absorb the ether
through their pores for sustenance. Kirk claimed that the women
made their clothes, and seemed to model them on the fashions
of the neighbouring humans. They were not known to practice religion, but Kirk
insisted that they had some metaphysical beliefs, and that they disappeared when people
spoke the name of God or Jesus. The fairy people had government,
but no monarchy: instead, they were organized into a
commonwealth of tribes and orders. Kirk states that the fairies
used to live on the surface, but when humanity began dominating
the land, they retreated underground, where they built their civilization
within earth’s caves and caverns. They were also thought to inhabit the “fairy hills”
frequently found beside churches and graveyards. No one had ever found an entrance
to the subterranean world as the invisible people didn’t
use windows or doors: instead, they came and went by slipping
through the cracks in the earth. Many believed that the invisible people moved
to new dwellings four times a year, with the changing of the seasons. One of the most common times to see
them was when they were on the move, but nearly everyone that Kirk spoke with advised
against any entanglements with fairies, as they were known to be quite deceptive,
and potentially very dangerous. Their chief vices, Kirk claimed, were “envy,
spite, hypocrisy, lying, and dissimulation.” Seers insisted that these encounters could be
“terrifying,” and Kirk referenced a number of instances in which people were abducted by
the fairies, and often not returned. In light of this, it was custom amongst the
Scottish and Irish to avoid travel during the changing of the seasons, and to hold
church on the first Sunday of the quarter. Some also warded against abductions by keeping bread,
a Bible, and a cold piece of iron on their person. Many people even took measures
to protect food and animals. Those taken were brought to the subterranean
world, where the invisible people lived. This place was thought to be particularly
hazardous, as it was very difficult to leave, and one’s soul could be
trapped there forever. [Typewriter keystrokes, return slide] While Kirk is generally sparse on details,
he mentions a few stories of contact between human beings and fairies, many of which were
threatening, and a few of which were fatal. Many of these stories involved nursing mothers
being kidnapped to feed subterranean children. One informant told of a woman
who was abducted for two years, while a “lingering image” of her remained
in her home, then slowly decayed. Eventually, the likeness died, and the family
buried it, just before the mother returned, and told of her capture by the fairies. The woman said that she was held in a large
space, full of light with no apparent source. She said that she could rarely see her captors until
she anointed her eye with an oil left nearby. Once she saw them, the people made her
blind in that eye with a puff of their breath. Kirk was also informed that some children
were abducted and never returned. Evans-Wentz also reported a number
of folk stories in which fairies abducted people and animals,
or caused their deaths. Other writers after Kirk’s time also claimed that the fairy
people were known to occasionally sacrifice humans, in what was assumed to be some
form of arrangement with the devil. The invisible people were individually much
stronger than even multiple men, and could not be killed by human weapons. In combat, they were known to use stone
weapons and throw little barbed darts, and they could strike their targets dumb. Still, they never attacked anyone,
except when provoked. One seer told Kirk that he cut a fairy clean in two,
but nothing remained of the body once he’d halved it. Another time, he wrestled
one of the invisible people, and his neighbours claimed to have seen him disappear
and reappear an hour later somewhere else. Kirk also wrote of certain objects – usually
stones – being thrown around the house, or at inhabitants, but with no
apparent intent to harm. Kirk attributed these events to the action
of “invisible wights,” though today, anomalists would probably classify them
as instances of poltergeist activity. Kirk also spoke of “Brownies,” as they
were called in Scotland, who were known to clean houses and wash dishes while their host
families slept, and take food for payment. Some fairies were also said to occasionally reveal
unsolved crimes, and turn up forgotten treasures, much in the same way that hauntings tend to draw
attention to traumatic accidents and unsolved murders. Kirk also makes mention of encounters with the dead,
and a range of other beings and apparitions. He makes passing mention
of encounters with succubi, as well as with “evil angels”
who suck the blood of witches. Kirk even mentions doppelgangers,
as we’d call them today. These “Doubleman” or “Co-walkers” were
physically identical to humans on the surface, but they lived in the
subterranean world. All of these creatures were
God’s creation, in Kirk’s view, and one should not be
surprised to encounter them. [Typewriter keystrokes, return slide] Kirk’s treatise circulated in manuscript
form for the next 120 years, but was only disseminated privately. Walter Scott published the
first printed edition in 1815. In 1893, the writer and folklorist,
Andrew Lang, published a second, more popular edition based on Scott’s printing,
as the source manuscript had been lost. Lang added a lengthy commentary and gave
Kirk his popular moniker, “The Fairy Minister,” by which he’s now memorialized. Many more editions of the Commonwealth
followed, based on Scott’s text, though later editions are based on a
more complete manuscript source. Kirk was not the first to document the
existence of the invisible people or other anomalies like Second Sight,
and he was far from the last: references to supernatural abductions, poltergeist
activity, and apparitional experiences have appeared in a number of sources throughout
history – particularly since the 5th or 6th centuries CE. Folklorist Lewis Spence surveys all references
to fairy beings in British tradition, and notes that by the twelfth century CE, one could
identify three distinct types of fairies in the literature: a diminutive type, a dwarf-like or goblinesque
type, and a tall, stately, female type. Still, The Secret Commonwealth was among the
first works in history to be devoted exclusively to the topic of fairies, and it was unique
for featuring the stories of common people, and drawing heavily from local lore. Kirk was likely not aware, but the same kinds of invisible
beings were known to people all around the world. Icelanders called them the huldufólk, or “hidden” people,
who lived underground and were invisible to humans. In France and Quebec, they call them the Lutin,
thought to be house-spirits like brownies. The Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe
and central Asia call them Domovoys, and honored them as household deities. And by no means were belief in such
beings unique to Medieval Europe: representations of otherworldly beings appear
in some of the earliest human cave art. Ancient Greek philosophers like Pythagoras, Plato,
and Socrates all spoke of other classes of beings like demi-gods and personal spirits called daemons
that wielded strong influence in human affairs. While pagan-era beliefs in spirits and
supernatural beings were condemned by most established Christian churches,
Kirk championed them as a bulwark against the growing threat of “atheism” in the 17th century,
or what we’d call materialism, or physicalism today. Kirk’s work was a plea against a growing tide of doubt
in any other beings but God, angels, and demons. Evans-Wentz observed that by the early 20th century,
the fairy faith had nearly disappeared, and was then only adhered to by the elderly. Today, polls indicate a minority belief
in fairies, but the topic is taboo, and believers are prone to ridicule. However, in his 1969 book,
Passport to Magonia, Jacques Vallée reinterpreted The Secret
Commonwealth and other fairy stories in the context of the contemporary
discussion of UFOs and entity encounters. Vallée asserted that contemporary belief
in “flying saucers” and alien beings was nearly identical to belief in fairies and
other spirit-beings in Medieval Europe. He observed that while anomalous entities
appeared differently in different times and places, they always behaved in similar ways,
and wielded similar powers. Vallée drew attention to a number of these
similarities in subsequent books. For example, both the UFOnauts of the postwar period
and the invisible people of the Scottish lowlands tended to abduct people,
and bring them to well-lit rooms, frequently described as having
no obvious source of light. Many female UFO abductees, or experiencers, have also
reported being asked to nurse children for their captors. Both fairies and modern UFOnauts have
been said to teleport, become invisible, and even paralyze people from afar,
or prevent them from speaking. Both were also known
to vanish in an instant. These commonalities led Vallée and other anomalists
to posit that encounters with both fairies and so-called “aliens” should be considered
instances of the same underlying phenomenon. [Typewriter keystrokes, return slide] The image of the fairy is deeply
ingrained in Western culture, appearing in everything from garden
ornaments to children’s books. But these whimsical, Victorian-era depictions are
not faithful to the historical source material on fairy people and other
supernatural beings. The beings that Kirk described, when visible,
were closer to humans than anything else, and they lived beneath our feet. Kirk proposed that the reason that the fairies
appeared to humanity was to convince us that an invisible realm exists,
and that it’s not entirely out of reach. Their occasional interactions with humans
served as both a “caution and warning” that we are not alone in the world, and that unseen,
intelligent forces occasionally meddled in our affairs. Maybe these forces are still at work. (Sources are listed in the video description.) Help support quality videos
on anomalous phenomena. Give to Think Anomalous on Patreon or donate
by Paypal at our website. Every bit helps.

What Social Distancing Actually Is & What it Means for Mental Health


{♫Intro♫} Social distancing can be very good —from
a public health perspective. It’s a time-honored, low-tech tool for slowing
the spread of contagious pathogens. But it can also take a toll psychologically. Luckily, there are ways to mitigate these
harms. So you can protect yourself and your community
from disease while also protecting your mental health. Social distancing refers to a variety of measures
which actually aim to increase the physical distance between people. In fact, some experts have suggested changing
the term to “physical distancing” instead of social distancing. And the logic is simple: we’re dealing with
an infectious disease that spreads through contact with a sick person or something they’ve
left behind. So, if everyone limits their contact with
people and public places, they can limit the spread of the disease in their community. And that, hopefully, will slow or even stop
the outbreak. There are two basic strategies for this. The first is to keep people who come face-to-face
with one another farther apart. This usually means avoiding physical contact,
like hugging and shaking hands. And if sneezes and coughs can launch virus
particles up to two meters, then it may help to stay at least two meters away from other
people when you’re in public. The second is to limit the size of gatherings. This decreases the likelihood that a person
who’s infected will be there. This might mean closing schools and canceling
events, or even shutting down businesses where people tend to gather, like bars and movie
theaters. Or, in the extreme, it may mean following
Stay at Home orders, which literally mean staying home as much as you can, save the
very occasional trip to the grocery store or if you need to seek medical attention. Social distancing comes in handy when you
don’t know who in the community might be infected. Like, if people are contagious before they
show symptoms, or if people with very mild symptoms can spread an infection. [social distancing] It’s distinct from two
other measures you’ve probably been hearing about: quarantine and isolation, though we
are using these things all interchangeably a lot right now. But technically, Quarantine is when you separate
people who have been exposed to a contagious pathogen away from people who haven’t, and
monitor for signs of illness. And isolation is when you separate people
who have a contagious disease from people who do not. You may have also heard of cities, counties,
or other large areas stopping people from entering or leaving their borders. This is yet another method people have used
to control the spread of infectious disease, called a cordon sanitaire. In all cases, the ultimate goal is to reduce
the total number of people infected at any given moment, or quote “flatten the curve”
of the epidemic. That helps ensure that healthcare facilities
have the bandwidth to give quality care to everyone who needs it. But, these measures also have very real costs—including
psychological ones. There are lots of factors at play, but when
it comes to mental health effects, the main culprits are isolation and uncertainty. Now I know we used “isolation” earlier
when talking about public health. But isolation as a public health measure is
different than feelings of isolation in psychology. Those are the negative emotions associated
with having fewer interactions with other people. We really feel the loss of our social lives
because, well, we’re a social species. There’s lots of research that suggests people
feel happier when they interact with others. And that’s because, for hundreds of thousands
of years, an individual’s survival has depended on the nature of their interactions with other
humans. So our brains have evolved to find positive
social interactions rewarding on the neuronal level. Even the everyday interactions we have with
strangers contribute a surprising amount to our mental wellbeing. On top of that, the quickly-changing landscaping
of a public health crisis breeds a lot of uncertainty. We have a whole episode on why people tend
to have a hard time with uncertainty in general, if you want to learn more. But the short version: a major theme that
underlies many of our greatest worries is fear of the unknown. And outbreaks are kind of unpredictable by
nature. Emerging pandemics may create even more uncertainty
than other types of dangerous events because they involve multiple types of risk. On the one hand, your individual risk of personal
harm may be low—depending on your exposure, age, and underlying health conditions. But at the same time, the risk to your community
or country might be huge—like, the high potential that the disease will overwhelm
healthcare systems and cripple economies. It can be hard for the brain to reconcile
these seemingly conflicting points of view. And that contributes to uncertainty. And speaking of uncertainty… It’s also difficult to predict exactly how
a pandemic will affect mental health. Many of the psychological effects of social
distancing and other measures are tough to quantify—like the stresses that come with
canceled events and lost income. Plus, contributing factors are interrelated,
so it’s hard to disentangle one part from everything else that’s going on. But researchers have gathered a lot of information
in recent years—after the SARS, H1N1, and Ebola outbreaks, for example. All those studies suggest that public safety
measures often lead to increased rates of depression and anxiety in the community. Those increases are even higher for people
with high exposure, like healthcare workers. And people with certain mental health conditions
may be more vulnerable. Like, if you already have anxiety, depression,
or substance use disorder, then social distancing may make it worse. Or if you have obsessive compulsive disorder,
it may be harder to manage amid messages about increased handwashing. And the emotional costs tend to increase as
measures get stricter. Regardless of your specific circumstances,
though, there are things that you can do to protect your mental health. All the uncertainty jacks up your stress level—so
things that help you relax are great. Like, if looking at the news makes you feel
anxious, maybe spend less time with it, and tune in to just a few reliable sources. Even if what you’re reading is accurate, consuming
outbreak-related media may decrease your wellbeing and perhaps even make you feel sick when you
aren’t. Also, you can try to stay active. Exercise is great for relieving symptoms of
stress, anxiety, and depression. Or, you could consider giving mindfulness
practice a try. That’s the practice of tuning in to the
present moment and accepting your thoughts and feelings without judging them — often
with the help of breathing exercises or meditation. It can calm painful emotions and relieve stress,
and it benefits the body and brain in other ways, too. Though, different people can react to it in
different ways, so you might want to talk to your doctor first. Above all, try making an effort to reach out. Even if it feels like it, you’re really not
alone. We live in a wonderful time when we can use
technology, like video calls, to connect. So you can be social with friends and family
electronically! And if you can, go outside. From a safe distance, you can talk to your
neighbors and even strangers on the street. You can also reach out to people in need,
and have some compassion for people whose jobs take them into crowded places — the
healthcare workers, grocery store employees, and airline workers who take care of us every
day. Helping others pays dividends in both directions:
the giver and the recipient both feel good. It’s part of our biological programming. And all of us should also support the people
who get sick and those who lose their wages or jobs because of everything going on. It’s not their fault. This kind of leaning on one another in spite
of social distancing may actually make us feel closer and more supported by our friends
and loved ones during and after an outbreak. And remember: You have some level of control
here. Your actions, from working from home to washing
your hands, do matter. You are protecxting people. None of this will completely prevent the pandemic
from having an emotional toll; nothing can. But they might help reduce some of the negative
effects of social distancing. We’re all in this together. So be kind to one another—and, especially,
to yourself. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow
Psych, and to our patrons on Patreon, who make every episode of SciShow possible. You can learn more about this amazing community
of science-loving people at Patreon.com/SciShow. And if you’re looking for more information
about the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, we have some episodes on our main channel that you might
find helpful—they’re linked in the description below. {♫Outro♫}

What’s Quackin’ Daily Quack Fact #3

April 5, 2020 | Articles, Blog | No Comments

What’s Quackin’ Daily Quack Fact #3


Good Morning Everyone! It’s your friends at the University of Illinois
Extension 4-H Team. I don’t know about you but I am so excited
to see how much our eggs have grown in the last 7 days. To do this, we will have to see if our eggs
are fertile; which means they’re growing an embryo. To do this, we have to learn how to candle
an egg using a candler. A candler; or bright light, is used to shine
a beam into the egg to observe the inside of the egg. This is another chicken egg that was purchased
at the grocery store so it is no fertile. We are going to practice candling an egg. You just shine the bottom of the egg on the
candler, like this! You can turn it around and see that some parts
of the egg are more transparent or see through. Tune in tomorrow as we test our eggs in the
incubator.

Astronomical Facts About Earth You Probably Didn’t Learn In School


From facts about the moon, to the rotation
of the Earth, and beyond, join us as we explore Astronomical Facts About Our Planet You Probably
Didn’t Learn In School! 10. The Moon Probably Came From The Earth
When you think about the Earth in its grander sense, there are a few thoughts that come
to mind without a doubt. One is that we orbit around the sun, which
is true, and the other thing is that the moon is a big part of what makes the Earth what
it is right now, and that’s also true. But what you don’t learn in school is that
one of the most believed theories about the moon is that it actually came from the Earth
itself. How does that work? Well, to explain, we need to go back to the
beginnings of the solar system. To keep things simple, let’s just say that
after the sun formed, a bunch of space particles came together and formed the various planets. Including giving them the solid or gaseous
compositions that you know them to have. The problem with this was that it wasn’t just
the planets that were created, asteroids, comets, meteors, and more were born, and thanks
to the pull of the sun…that meant that they were sent flying. The common belief is that one of these space
rocks was sent towards Earth, which itself was still in a non-life state at this point
in time, and when that rock hit the planet, a massive explosion occurred. One that was so powerful it ripped out a part
of the Earth and sent it into space. Then, over time, the rocks that were still
there due to Earth’s gravitational field and the pull of the sun formed the moon. Far-fetched? Maybe. But there is science to back this up, mainly
in that the moon has a similar composition to the Earth in many aspects. Including having the same materials and even
minerals in certain places. It’s not a perfect match, but it’s really
close, and that’s why some people really feel that the moon came from the Earth. Though obviously without a time machine to
take us back to that point, we can’t truly speculate as to how the moon was really formed. 9. The Moon Has A Treaty
Let’s stick with the moon for a bit, because there are some things about it that relates
to Earth that are more crazy than logical, and yet it’s something that totally needed
to happen. Don’t worry, I’m explain it all. Allow me to start with a question, “Who owns
the moon?” The answer you’d think would be, “The Earth”,
or “Humanity”. But rarely is anything that simple. At first, the moon was just an object in the
sky to look at and enjoy looking at. Wondering what else is out there in the stars. Then, in the 1960’s, we started to shoot for
space, and the desire to get to the moon. In 1969 we landed on the moon, and we’ve done
it many times more since that point. But despite people having landed on the moon,
no one really owns it. And no one nations specifically has power
over it…which causes a lot of grey areas. Believe it or not, there have been many countries
who have had the urge to go to the moon to set up a military base of some kind. Which is hilarious, and also something that
was featured in the video game Wolfenstein: The New Colossus. But that’s another topic. To help prevent this from happening, an international
peace treaty was made between 100 of the worlds’ countries (mainly the ones that can honestly
reach space with their technology) and stated that the moon is off limits in terms of military
power. Other options are still on the board, including
potentially mining the moon for various resources, but we can take heart in that at least for
now, there is no moon military base in sight for Earth…for now… 8. Magnetic Shifts
There are many layers to our planet, that’s one of the reasons why the Earth is able to
sustain life like it does. however, there are some thing that truly help
define what our Earth does, and one of those things is the magnetic field that encompasses
the Earth. The field is made in part by the Earth’s rotation
and its gravity, not to mention the various parts of space that surround the Earth. Anyway, with it in place, it acts as both
a shield, and a stabilizer for things like our seasons. In regards to its shield properties, that
would be how it protects the Earth from things like solar winds and harmful radiation. The atmosphere does part of the work, but
the magnetic field does the rest. The problem though is that while it may seem
like a constant force in our lives. It’s not. Not even close. Through Earth’s history, and even right now,
the Earths magnetic poles are shifting in position. We think of the magnetic fields points as
the “North Pole” in the arctic and the “South Pole” in Antarctica. But that’s not exactly true anymore. In the 19th century up to now, the poles have
actually shifted 600 miles away from the core points that we are taught. Before you start panicking, this 600 mile
shift won’t hurt us for the most part. Mainly because those points are in the ocean
and won’t cause much harm there. However, in history, and in our future, the
poles will shift to radically new positions one day, and when it does, the Earth will
go through an upheaval that it hasn’t experienced in many millions of years. So yeah, you don’t want to be around when
that happens. Before we shower you with more facts about
the Earth that you didn’t know about, be sure to like the video and subscribe to the channel,
that way you don’t miss our weekly videos! 7. Gravity Flux
Think the magnetic fields of the Earth are the only thing that shifts? That would be a negative. But what might surprise you is that one of
the things that does fluctuate is something that we all believe to be a constant force:
Gravity. Our gravity is created by the Earth’s mighty
mass. But here’s the problem, despite what a lot
of people like to tell you…the Earth ISN’T perfectly round, and because of that imbalance,
no matter how slight it may or may not be, it causes various problems, including where
gravity is most forceful, and where it is the least forceful. That means that scattered all over the Earth
are places that honestly do have less gravity. One of them is somewhat known via Hudson Bay
in Canada. If you’re in that area, the gravity is causing
less of an impact on you, and thus you are truly weighing less. To be clear, you’re going to be jumping as
high as you would on something like the moon. But it is less than in other places in the
world. What’s really interesting though is that the
mystery of the gravity fluctuations was only solved recently. Which means we’ve been living under lower
gravity in parts and no one has known the reason why for basically hundreds and thousands
of years. Makes you wonder what else we’re missing,
eh? 6. Speed Of Rotation
If you really want to boil it down to basics, the Earth has two “speeds”, the rotation of
itself in the way that helps create the actual days. And then the rotation that it goes around
the sun in order to do an orbital year. You’re possibly knowledgeable on one of them,
but not both of them, so we’ll just cover both to make everyone happen. The rotational orbit of Earth shouldn’t be
too much of a surprise. if we have a 24 hour day (more on that in
a bit), and we need to move a certain speed to rotate fully, that would mean that it would
have to be a relatively clean number to get it to travel that fast, right? Don’t bust your brains, I’ll tell you the
answer. The Earth moves about 1000 miles per hour
around the Equator, which is the central horizontal line of the planet if you recall. Technically the planet moves slower at other
points, but because the horizontal base is turning at that speed, we’re able to do a
full rotation in about 24 hours. Yes, I said “about 24 hours”, that’s because… 5. The Time In A Day
Pop quiz, how much time is in a day? the answer you’re likely shouting is, “24
hours!” Because we’re told all of our lives that there
is 24 hours in a day on this planet, and everything we do, from the work we go to, to the fun
times we have, to our sleep schedules, is modeled around the 24 hour day rotation. But here’s the thing, we actually don’t rotate
in 24 hours. Not exactly anyway. The technical truth is that the Earth rotates
in 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds. So yeah, if you round up, that would mean
that we rotate every 24 hours, but it’s not as finite as you imagine. But, this does answer one of the most important
question. Remember Leap Years? That’s how they get made, that’s how we get
that “extra day”, because eventually that 4 minutes that get “left behind” every day
add up, and leap years are born. As for the other thing, getting around the
sun? We move around the sun at a rate of 108.000km/h. Not as round as 1000MPH, but we need to go
that speed to make it fully around the sun. 4. The Earth Sometimes Has Temporary Moons
Of the planets in our solar system, many have moons. A few like Mercury and Venus don’t have moons,
and planets like Jupiter and Saturn and literal scores of moons. As for the Earth, we have one, and we’ve done
pretty well with that one moon if we do say so ourselves. The problem is that there are some people
who think that the Earth’s gravitational field is so strong that we actually have another
moon orbiting us in space. The catch here is that unlike our actual moon,
it’s not a constant thing. Just the opposite in fact. You see, the moon’s orbit around the Earth
is mostly stable, but these “temporary moons”? Not so much. The Earth’s gravity is strong enough to pull
in giant space rocks like asteroids (which is another reason we don’t want to get hit
by a massive one), and when they get caught in our gravity field, they start to orbit
us. Now again, unlike the moon we have, their
orbits aren’t stable. They instead rotate a few times before being
shot back off into space. Still, if this is the case, it makes you wonder
just how many times a “moon” has come into our orbit, even if it’s only for another day
or two. 3. Our Atmosphere Is Full Of Trash, and It’s
Our Fault If humanity has a singular fault that dwarfs
all others, that would be arrogance. And while we may tout that space is the place
to be, we also know after living on the planet awhile that space is full of trash from everything
we’ve done to try and get up there. If you were to look at our atmosphere from
a higher perspective, you’d find that there are remnants of various space projects just
floating up there. This includes spaceships, satellites, probes,
tools from things like the International Space Station, and so much more. The number of trash things up there is so
much it’s actually innumerable. Mainly because they like to collide with one
another and break into much smaller pieces. When that happens, they keep moving, keep
colliding, and so on and so forth. Thankfully, we don’t have to worry about them
here on Earth because they’d burn up in the atmosphere should they ever fall back down. But going up to space? You have to be extra careful to not hit space
junk 2. We Still Don’t Know What The Core Of Our Planet
Is Like If you’ve been in a class about the Earth’s
core, you’ll know that there are many layers to it. Like the Mantle, the Outer Crust, the Inner
Crust, the Outer Core and the Inner Core. Despite many years dedicated to trying to
understand the core and what it is like…we can’t reach it. It’s too deep into the Earth (which is very
nearly 4000 miles long in regards to the radius) and has temperatures over 9000 degrees Fahrenheit. We expect that it has a composition of iron-nickel
alloy, but unlike the Mantle, we don’t have any samples to go off of. Everything that we THINK we know about the
core is based on estimations, guesses, and the other layers of the core. We’ll likely get there eventually, but it
won’t be right now. 1. Our Planet Used To Be Purple
If you were to describe our planet in terms of visuals. You would no doubt say colors like blue for
the oceans that cover 3/4’s of our planet, you’d mention greens and browns for the land
masses, and white for the ice. Right? But one color you’d likely NOT mention at
all outside of certain specific spots is purple. Purple can happen on Earth, obviously, but
not in such numbers that it’s visible from above without specific purpose. However, one scientists has proposed that
at one point in time, the Earth was actually fully purple. How did this happen potentially? The answer is microbes. At one point in time, it’s believed that microbes
were able to use other things to process sunlight instead of chlorophyll. So instead of being green, they apparently
gave off a purple tinge. And since these microbes were all over the
world, that would make the Earth a very interesting shade of purple. Obviously, this would eventually change and
make it so that the Earth got its “natural palette” of colors, but it’s cool to think
about how billions of years ago we were very much a different shade of life. Thanks for watching everyone! What did you think of these facts about our
planet that you didn’t get taught in school? Which of them did you think was the most surprising
of the lot? Which of them did you already know through
various means? Let me know in the comments below, be sure
to subscribe, and I’ll see you next time on the channel!

The Real Flying Saucer

April 4, 2020 | Articles, Blog | 100 Comments

The Real Flying Saucer


This episode of Real Engineering is brought
to you by Audible. Get your first audiobook for free at audible dot com slash real engineering. Music An extensive program of research and development
in the field of disk flight, which was started in 1952 is being conducted by Avro Aircraft
Limited at Malton, Ontario. Early studies on behalf of the United States Airforce proved
the feasibility of a circular planform vertical take-off aircraft utilizing a system of peripheral
jets for propulsion, stabilization and control. What you are witnessing is one of the most
bizarre technologies of the mid 20th century. The year was 1960. The Cold War was looming
over America and within 5 years American troops will be entering Vietnam. Many of them by
helicopter. The helicopter’s role was clear. A vertical take-off vehicle capable of rapidly
deploying behind enemy lines with the need for runways. It could carry both men and weapons
and serve a multitude of roll’s, but it’s speed and maneuverability left it vulnerable
to attack and it could not intercept enemy planes. The Avrocar was envisioned as a solution.
A new type of airframe that could fulfill both the role of a helicopter and a supersonic
jet fighter. And it all began life as Project 1794 [1]
with the goal of creating a vertical take off and landing aircraft capable of flying
at three times the speed of sound with a service ceiling of 100,000 feet. This all sounds like it was born from the
imagination of alien conspiracy theorists, but the design was perfectly logical in the
mind of John Frost, a renowned and respected design engineer. John’s concept for the Avrocar was seeded
from his experimentation with combining two physical phenomena. The Coanda Effect and
Ground Effect. The coanda effect is simply the tendency of
a fluid to follow the curve of convex shapes.[2] Modern planes like the C-17 take advantage
of the effect with flaps which can descend into the exhaust flow of the engines during
landings. This would redirect some of the exhaust downwards to provide additional lift,
allowing the C-17 to slow it’s approach speed and land on shorter runways. [2] Most online publications on this vehicle overstate
the importance of the Coanda Effect, and in some cases completely confuse it for ground
effect. While there are many test videos of John Frost experimenting with the effect with
small prototypes, the effect does not get a single mention in the initial secret white
paper, where early designs were presented. There were multiple concepts drawn up for
the Avrocar, but they all centred around on basic idea. Direct high pressure air 360 degrees
outwards and use shutters and control surfaces to redirect it for control. The coanda effect
was not a feature for these kind of devices. The initial blue sky design called for a completely
novel engine layout which would not use conventional jet engines for power. Instead there would
be one large diameter engine surrounding the pilot. With the compressor stage mounted on
the inner diameter, the turbine mounted on the outer diameter with a combustion chamber
in between. A major change from typical jet engines which have these stages mounted sequentially
over a common axel. This new engine would be an ideal use of space.
With fuel tanks mounted in a ring around the pilot, which presented a massive fire hazard,
but did keep the centre of gravity as close to the centre of pressure as possible. However, designing an entirely novel engine
for the prototype would have been far two costly, so a compromise design was created
for the early prototype designs. Commercially available turbo jets would be
mounted radially around the disk in a repeating pattern. This created a radially symmetric
design, that would allow for repeating sections identical in construction. This was a huge
advantage of the flying disk design as it would reduce the number of parts needed thanks
to the radially symmetric design resulting in repeating parts. This would drastically
reduce manufacturing costs. These turbojet engines would be mounted around
a central turbine. The outlet pressure of these turbojets would drive this turbine in
the middle section, and it’s remaining kinetic energy would be used to provide lift by exhausting
it directly downwards. Meanwhile the rotation of this turbine was
powering two impeller levels mounted above and below the turbine. These centrifugal impellers
would draw air from intakes above and below the disk and accelerate it radially outwards
through ducts. Some of this air would be redirected back into the inlet of the turbojet engines
to maintain a constant ram pressure, which is the pressure we typically associate at
the inlet of a jet engine as an aircraft forces itself through the air. For this design I don’t see much of the
coanda effect being used as the air has no other option than to exhaust in the direction
the shutters allow them to. This was the general concept behind the Avrocar,
but the two prototypes that were actually built were much lower in spec. With 3 turbojet
engines instead of 6. Here they were mounted tangentially, rather than perpendicularly
to the inner turbine which would drive the inner turborotor, which would work similarly
to the F-35’s direct lift rotor by directing some of this air directly downwards, however
it differs from the F-35 as some of that air was expelled outwards. For these prototypes the coanda effect may
have played a larger role, as some air was directed over the outer surface of the aircraft. However, this prototype was underpowered.
With a huge amount of energy lost through friction drag in the ducting system and through
powering the turborotor. Using a geared drive system, similar to the F-35 would result in
far less friction and energy loss. This prototype relied completely on the lift
boosting effects of ground effect to achieve lift off. Ground Effect is simply a boost
in lift when an aircraft is close enough to the ground to create a high pressure cushion
of air between the vehicle and the ground. [Reference Image 1] But this created some issues for the prototype.
Here you can see John Frost, maybe unintentionally, demonstrating the first with his early tests.
He lifts the prototype out of the ground effect zone where it no longer has enough lift to
keep it aloft and then let’s go, allowing the scale model to drop back into the ground
effect zone where the high pressure air acts like a bouncy castle. The vehicle begins to
bob up and down until the motion has finally been dampened out. This is a bobbing motion can be an annoyance,
but a far larger issue was an aerodynamic instability the designers of the avrocar dubbed
hub-capping that it could cause. [3] It was named after the motion a hubcap, or
any circular shape, would make as it rotated around it’s rim. You can see the pilots
of the Avrocar struggling to control the vehicle in most of the archival footage of it’s
testing. They likened it to trying to balance on a beach ball. A constant physically and
demanding task. This was again caused by how ground effect
interacted with the aircraft at various altitudes. Ground effect means that lift rises the closer
to the ground you are, but this causes issues with aerodynamic stability when the Avrocar
was tilted. Here the right side of the vehicle comes closer to the ground and the left moves
further away. This causes the center of pressure to shift to the right as the lift shifts to
the right, this however did not act as a restoring force to keep the avrocar level, as the vehicle
needed to keep its nose down in order to move forward which shifted it’s centre of weight
forward. Instead it resulted in the avrocar swinging around it’s pitch and roll axis
in that hubcapping motion. Over the next year the team worked on fixing
this issue. The turbofan itself was intended to provide stabilization. [4] The turbofan
would desire to remain in a horizontal position through gyroscopic action. So the engineers
developed a system where they could couple this action to the controls at the outer rim
of the aircraft. They did this by mounting the turbofan to a gimbal, allowing the avrocar
to freely rotate around the turbofan. If the avrocar deviated form the horizontal position
it would cause linkages connected to the gimbal system to move and shift the control surfaces
to correct the tilt. As clever as this system was, before the age of fly by wire technology,
it could not compensate for the inherent instability of the aircraft. The prototype was modified over the testing
period with different control mechanisms, but none of them could solve this instability
problem. They gyroscopic effects were having negative
effects elsewhere too. The Avrocar took 5 seconds to rotate 90 degrees counterclockwise,
which is too long to begin with, but it took over twice as long at 11 seconds to turn it
clockwise against the rotation of the turborotor. John Frost attempted to address some of the
problems in 1961. Designing this variation of the Avrocar which included a wing and a
tail to provide lateral and pitch stability, while moving the cockpit to the front of the
vehicle. Ultimately he was too late. The design was
ditched as it was simply converging into a plane with VTOL capabilities which were in
research at that time. Like the Harrier Jump Jet which would fly it’s first flight in
1967 and enter service in 1969. Today we can see aspects of it’s design
being used in the F-35 with the turborotor, while instability issues with hovering in
ground effect are barely an issue for this aircraft with advanced computer control reacting
to wobbles before the pilot has time to even notice them. Who knows, if the design was revisited today
the flying saucer could truly exit the realm of science fiction. After all, most of science
fiction is based on true science potential. We can learn a lot about science through the
exploration of hypotheticals in audiobooks like We Are Legion (We Are Bob). Easily one
of the most enjoyable science-fiction series I have ever listened to on Audible. We Are Legion (We Are Bob) which explores
what artificial intelligence combined with Von Neumann Probes, or self replicating spacecraft
would look like. This book tells the story of a young software engineer who dies and
finds his personality has been uploaded to a space probe destined to explore the universe
and battle with space probes from competing nations. The book is really funny as we witness
a man trying to keep himself entertained with only ever stranger versions of himself to
keep him company. Easily one of the most entertaining and informative
audiobooks I listened to last year. You can listen to this title for free today
if you visit audible dot com slash real engineering or text realengineering to 500-500. This will
get you a 30 day audible trial with access to 1 audiobook and 2 audible originals included.
After that you will get 1 free audiobook every month as part of your subscription, which
you could use for the next two audiobooks in the We Are Legion trilogy. In fact Audible is currently offering an amazing
deal. If you finish 3 audiobooks by March 3rd you will get a 20 dollar amazon gift card
for free. So just listen to this amazing series and get a free 20 dollars gift card for the
pleasure. As always, thanks for watching and thank you
to all my Patreon supporters. If you would like to see more from me the links to my instagram,
twitter, subreddit and discord server are below.

Reality-bending Metamaterials Could Revolutionize Future Spacecraft Designs


What you’re looking at is no standard paper crane. But it is a breakthrough development that
could one day let us reuse spacecraft, build epic superhero suits, or even harvest energy
for electronics… and it all relies on the ancient art of origami. Okay, so let’s start at the beginning. This is a metamaterial. No, that’s not a hipster material that is
obnoxiously self-referential. A metamaterial is an artificial substance
engineered to exhibit properties that we haven’t actually found in nature… at least, so far. They’re designed with repeating structures
allowing them to direct and control the flow of electromagnetic
or physical waves through them. Metamaterials have incredible properties,
like light-bending abilities or superconductivity, that come from their structure – not their
substance. And that means that engineering teams, like
this one at the University of Washington, can make reality-bending properties emerge
from something as simple as acrylic and paper. This design in particular draws from the mathematical
concepts of origami. While the ancient art of paper-folding has
been understood and utilized in Japan since at least the 17th century, there are remarkably
few studies about the dynamics of these complex shapes that can fold and unfold from a two-dimensional
sheet. You might think about a Möbius strip, for
example. How many sides does it have? Is it two- or three-dimensional? Take that idea one (or a few hundred) steps
further, and you’ll find the principles of origami at the core of space telescopes,
deep-sea robotics, drug delivery systems, and artificial muscles. In this case, these aeronautical engineers
created a beautiful modular structure using shapes they call TCOs. Poetic, I know. That stands for Triangulated Cylindrical Origami,
which makes sense when you look at their shape. Unlike other metamaterials, which typically
tend to harden under compression, this structure exhibits “strain-softening behavior.” This essentially means that the engineers
found a way to turn a compression wave— that is, a push or heavy impact—into a tension
wave—that is, a pull. Let me say that again. This structure, based on the way that its
planes, creases, and tension points are arranged, can LITERALLY REVERSE A PHYSICAL FORCE…
using nothing more than everyday materials and geometry. If that isn’t magic, I don’t know what
more you want from science. What you can see in this 3D model is that as the impact from the compression wave,
shown in red, “propagates” or travels through this structure,
it creates an opposite force ahead of it: the “tensile wave” shown in blue. This happens so quickly that the tensile wave
actually opposes the impact, softening it significantly. This is pretty nuts. Imagine football helmets or airbags
made of this stuff. Imagine how useful it could be in
construction areas prone to natural disasters, like earthquakes. Or my personal fantasy: combine this with
optical metamaterials, and you have yourself an invisible suit of armor. But I digress. If we can find ways to efficiently convert
kinetic, electromagnetic, or thermal energy into electrical energy, we might be able to
ditch conventional batteries entirely. The conversion of one kind of kinetic energy
into its opposite is actually a huge step down this road. And finally, one of the most exciting potential
applications of this tech is recyclable spacecraft. Since SpaceX’s Falcon 9 demonstrated that
controlled re-entry, descent and landing was in fact possible, engineers have been fascinated
with the idea of reusable rockets that would make space exploration cheaper and more accessible
than ever before. Build some landing legs out of this cootie
catcher and the sustainable space race might just blast off faster than we can imagine. Pretty neat that an ancient craft is paving
the way for incredible innovations in 21st-century technology. For more space origami, check out this episode
of Focal Point on how NASA engineers created a starshade that can fit in a rocket, but
unfold to the size of a baseball field. Don’t forget to subscribe to Seeker for
all your materials science news, and let us know in the comments below what meta-invention
you’re most excited for.

What’s Quackin’ Daily Quack Fact #4

April 4, 2020 | Articles, Blog | No Comments

What’s Quackin’ Daily Quack Fact #4


What’s Quackin’ Ya’ll! Today is a very exciting day for us at the
University of Illinois Extension 4-H team. We’re so excited to show you, a first look
at our growing eggs. Let’s use the techniques we learned yesterday
to candle our eggs. Candling Egg If you look closely you can see the growing
embryo along with some veins. The veins are part of the circulatory system
which is one of the first systems to develop.